2002). In addition, women deployed to the Gulf War were more likely than controls to report sex-specific problems, such as breast cysts and lumps, and abnormal cervical cytology.
Southwick and colleagues studied two deployed units of the Connecticut National Guard (n = 240) (Morgan et al. 1999; Southwick et al. 1993; Southwick et al. 1995). The focus of the study was on trauma-related symptoms and the course of PTSD. The cohort was studied prospectively at 1 month, 6 months, 2 years, and 6 years. The study was unusual in its frequency of followup, but there was no nondeployed comparison group. Although 240 were eligible to participate, only 119 filled out the first questionnaire and 84 filled out a second questionnaire at the 6-month mark. From 1 month to 6 months, the prevalence of PTSD increased, as did the severity rating of some symptom clusters (for example, hyperarousal). The prevalence varied, depending on the symptom scale and cutoffs being used, but on the average rose from about 3% to 6.5%. The degree of combat exposure was associated with the degree of PTSD symptoms. All veterans who, at 1 month or 6 months, met the criteria for PTSD according to the Mississippi scale, also met the criteria at 2 years (Southwick et al. 1995).