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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This study was supported by Contract No. DE-FG02-05ER46206 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Energy and Grant No. DMR-0205071 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project.

Cover (clockwise from upper left): (1) Colorized scanning electron micrograph of a copper wiring stack on a silicon chip, courtesy of IBM Corporation. IBM’s introduction of high-performance copper wiring technology to microelectronics manufacturing in 1997 was based on decades of research in materials physics. (2) Electron flow paths in a two-dimensional electron gas, courtesy of Eric J. Heller, Harvard University. (3) Colorized transmission electron micrograph of self-assembled gold nanochains on copolymer film, courtesy of Ward Lopes and Heinrich Jaeger, University of Chicago. (4) Schematic of theoretically predicted boron nitride nanotube, reprinted with permission from Marvin L. Cohen, Physics Today, June 2006, p. 52, copyright 2006, American Institute of Physics. (5) Droplet fission—a drop of water in the process of breaking apart, courtesy of Sidney Nagel and Xiangdong Shi, University of Chicago. (6) Scanning electron micrograph of an echinoderm skeletal element, courtesy of Joanna Aizenberg, Bell Labs. The entire structure is one single crystal of calcite with an intricate, genetically controlled micro/nano-porosity.

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National Academies Press,

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Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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