Safaeian M, Brookmeyer R, Vlahov D, Latkin C, Marx M, Strathdee SA. 2002. Validity of self-reported needle exchange attendance among injection drug users: Implications for program evaluation. American Journal of Epidemiology. 155(2):169–175.

Schechter MT, Strathdee SA, Cornelisse PG, Currie S, Patrick DM, Rekart ML, O’Shaughnessy MV. 1999. Do needle exchange programmes increase the spread of HIV among injection drug users?: An investigation of the Vancouver outbreak. AIDS. 13(6):F45–F51.

Schoenbaum EE, Hartel DM, Gourevitch MN. 1996. Needle exchange use among a cohort of injecting drug users. AIDS. 10(14):1729–1734.

Strathdee SA, Patrick DM, Currie SL, Cornelisse PG, Rekart ML, Montaner JS, Schechter MT, O’Shaughnessy MV. 1997. Needle exchange is not enough: Lessons from the Vancouver injecting drug use study. AIDS. 11(8):F59–F65.

van Ameijden EJ, Coutinho RA. 1998. Maximum impact of HIV prevention measures targeted at injecting drug users. AIDS. 12(6):625–633.

van Ameijden EJ, van den Hoek JA, van Haastrecht HJ, Coutinho RA. 1992. The harm reduction approach and risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion in injecting drug users, Amsterdam. American Journal of Epidemiology. 136(2):236–243.

van Ameijden EJ, van den Hoek AR, Coutinho RA. 1994. Injecting risk behavior among drug users in Amsterdam, 1986 to 1992, and its relationship to AIDS prevention programs. American Journal of Public Health. 84(2):275–281.

van den Hoek JA, van Haastrecht HJ, Coutinho RA. 1989. Risk reduction among intravenous drug users in Amsterdam under the influence of AIDS. American Journal of Public Health. 79(10):1355–1357.

van Haastrecht HJ, van Ameijden EJ, van den Hoek JA, Mientjes GH, Bax JS, Coutinho RA. 1996. Predictors of mortality in the Amsterdam cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative drug users. American Journal of Epidemiology. 143(4):380–391.

Vazirian M, Nassirimanesh B, Zamani S, Ono-Kihara M, Kihara M, Ravari SM, Gouya MM. 2005. Needle and syringe sharing practices of injecting drug users participating in an outreach HIV prevention program in Tehran, Iran: A cross-sectional study. Harm Reduction Journal. 2:19.

Vertefeuille J, Marx MA, Tun W, Huettner S, Strathdee SA, Vlahov D. 2000. Decline in self-reported high-risk injection-related behaviors among HIV-seropositive participants in the Baltimore needle exchange program. AIDS and Behavior. 4(4):381–388.

Vlahov D, Junge B, Brookmeyer R, Cohn S, Riley E, Armenian H, Beilenson P. 1997. Reductions in high-risk drug use behaviors among participants in the Baltimore needle exchange program. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology. 16(5):400–406.

Watters JK, Estilo MJ, Clark GL, Lorvick J. 1994. Syringe and needle exchange as HIV/AIDS prevention for injection drug users. Journal of the American Medical Association. 271(2):115–120.

Wood E, Tyndall MW, Spittal PM, Li K, Hogg RS, Montaner JS, O’Shaughnessy MV, Schechter MT. 2002. Factors associated with persistent high-risk syringe sharing in the presence of an established needle exchange programme. AIDS. 16(6):941–943.

Wood E, Kerr T, Spittal PM, Small W, Tyndall MW, O’Shaughnessy MV, Schechter MT. 2003. An external evaluation of a peer-run “unsanctioned” syringe exchange program. Journal of Urban Health. 80(3):455–464.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement