Wiesel – It is a problem—as with cancer—you want to kill the disease, but you don’t want to kill the patient. It is a problem that we still are trying to understand. Once we can better understand the basis of behavior better, maybe we can also help fight terrorism on a scientific rather than an emotional basis.

Corillon – The Network did make a statement in 2001 titled Responding to Terrorism while Respecting Human Rights.

Marino Protti – The actions that can be taken by regional networks or regional academies, as well as a lot of the work that the Network is doing on some particular issues, may not be effective in some areas. They might, however, be effective regionally, in countries with a similar history and similar religions. There should be more encouragement through the regional academies to bring the issues of human rights into the discussion.

Wiesel – As you heard, there is a human rights council in Morocco, and apparently also in Jordan and Egypt. I didn’t realize how important these organizations are. The members are appointed by the government in Jordan and in Egypt, but in Morocco three are nominated, and the government selects one of the three. Clearly the government has a finger in the pie. On the other hand, it shows that these governments, by appointing a council of human rights, are trying to address these issues in the various regions. Each country has a different culture, different tradition and so on.

Erling Norrby – I made a rather wide inventory of issues that the Network could be involved in. I think the importance of a meeting like this is to try to focus and decide on some particular issue that would be the emphasis for the forthcoming two years. It was very commendable that at the meeting in Switzerland, for example, the emphasis was to engage in the formation of IPSO (Israeli-Palestinian Science Organization). Something like that coming out of this meeting would be useful.

Peeter Tulviste – Sometimes the authorities exert pressures on scientists, and scientists are not always free. I spent most of my life in that state, and I would like to say that it is a very complicated question. I would not agree with what you said as a general thesis. For example, millions of people in the former Soviet Union taught the students in all those universities the history of the Communist party, scientific communism, so-called political economy of socialism, and so on. Most of it was a total lie. It was just there because these disciplines existed to support a regime that violated human rights massively every day. Nobody pressed those people to do it. You can see that they were not real scientists. That is true. The other example I would give is Estonia, in Tartu, an old university city, there used to be a monument to a very wellknown medical scientist who graduated at the beginning of the 20th century from our university. His name was Nikolai Bordenko, and later on he was the main surgeon of the Soviet Army during the war.

You won’t find this monument there anymore, and the reason is that after Germany and the Soviet Union divided Poland between themselves, 21,000 Polish army officers were killed by Russians. The Germans discovered this and made it public. When this territory was in the hands of the Soviets again, Stalin made a special commission, which had to say that it was the Germans

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