Proceedings

Symposium and Seventh Biennial Meeting London, May 18-20, 2005

International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
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International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies Proceedings Symposium and Seventh Biennial Meeting London, May 18-20, 2005 International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 This document was made possible through the generous financial support of the Royal Society, the British Academy, the Richard Lounsbery Foundation, the Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation, the Scherman Foundation, Inc., and general operating funds provided to the Committee on Human Rights by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), National Academy of Engineering (NAE), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). For information, contact the Network secretariat: International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies c/o Committee on Human Rights The National Academies 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20001 Tel: 202-334-3043 Fax: Email: chr@nas.edu http://www7.nationalacademies.org/humanrights/Network_Description.html Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies THE INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS NETWORK of ACADEMIES AND SCHOLARLY SOCIETIES THE NETWORK AIMS TO PUT INTO PRACTICE THE PROFESSIONAL DUTY OF SCIENTISTS AND SCHOLARS TO ASSIST THOSE COLLEAGUES WHOSE HUMAN RIGHTS HAVE BEEN—OR ARE THREATENED TO BE—INFRINGED AND TO PROMOTE AND PROTECT THE INDEPENDENCE OF ACADEMIES AND SCHOLARLY SOCIETIES WORLDWIDE. [Approved unanimously at the May 11, 2001, fifth biennial meeting of the International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies, held at the French Academy of Sciences in Paris, France.] Overview of the Network’s Mission The International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies assists colleagues (scientists and scholars) around the world who are subjected to severe repression solely for having nonviolently exercised their rights as promulgated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). It also promotes human rights consciousness-raising and institutional commitment to human rights work among counterpart academies and scholarly societies worldwide and encourages and protects their independence. The Network was created in May 1993 at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. It has met biennially—in 1995 in Amsterdam at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, in 1997 in Rome at the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, in 1999 in Stockholm at The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and The Royal Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities, in 2001 in Paris at the French Academy of Sciences, in May 2003 at the Centro Stefano Franscini at the Monte Verità in Ascona, Switzerland when hosted by the Council of the Swiss Scientific Academies and, most recently, in 2005 at the Royal Society in London. The next meeting of the Network will be held in April 2007 in Colombo and will be hosted by the National Academy of Sciences of Sri Lanka. Some 70 academies and scholarly societies have sent representatives to attend Network meetings. National academies and scholarly societies that have human rights

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International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies committees and actively support the work of the Network are considered to be members. The Network has an Executive Committee that administers the Network. In addition to founding members François Jacob (France), Pieter van Dijk (Netherlands), and Torsten Wiesel (USA), (sadly, founding member Max Perutz died in February 2002), the Executive Committee includes Arjuna Aluwihare (Sri Lanka), Claude Cohen-Tannoudji (France), Belita Koiller (Brazil), John Polanyi (Canada), and Edoardo Vesentini (Italy). The Committee on Human Rights of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine in Washington, D.C. serves as secretariat for the Network. Carol Corillon directs the committee and is Executive Director of the Network. Other academies that want to consider the creation of a human rights committee and full involvement in the Network are welcome to send a prominent member as an observer to a Network meeting before making a final decision. Both members and observers are encouraged to refer potentially relevant cases and human rights issues to the Network's secretariat for investigation and possible action. Institutions that are members of the Network have full autonomy and act at their own discretion. They intervene, in the name of their institutions, on cases and issues brought to their attention by the Network secretariat through regular Action Alerts. These alerts often involve colleagues who are held without trial or who have received harsh sentences. Many are confined under deplorable conditions, often in solitary confinement. Some have been tortured, most have been mistreated, and many are in poor health. All members of the Network are expected to actively support its goals and to keep the secretariat informed of their efforts and any subsequent results. The Network secretariat also prepares private petitions for imprisoned colleagues that are submitted to UNESCO's Committee on Conventions and Recommendations by selected academies and individuals. The Network occasionally sends observers to the trial of a colleague or colleagues. Members of the Network believe that academies and scholarly societies worldwide are in a unique position to help promote and protect human rights, to raise the consciousness of academies and scholarly societies about human rights abuses and what they can do to help resolve them, to gain the freedom of their imprisoned colleagues, to assist others whose rights are unjustly and severely restricted, to support the independence of sister academies throughout the world, and to encourage scientific exchange and cooperation. Because academies and scholarly societies are held in high esteem and their dignity, integrity, and objectivity are widely recognized, their efforts, through a worldwide network, can be a powerful and effective tool in advancing respect for human rights.

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International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies Summary Statement The International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies May 2005 Meeting, The Royal Society, London The International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies, created in 1993, met at the Royal Society in London from 18-20th May 2005, at its 7th biennial meeting, with representation from 42 scientific academies around the world. The participants of the meeting noted with considerable concern that human rights violations are increasing, sometimes behind a façade of legal rectitude and particularly in reaction to the major terrorism events of September 2001. It was affirmed that torture, detention without due process, and other human rights violations cannot be accepted, even in light of urgent measures needed to combat and weed out terrorism. It also was affirmed that basic rights and freedoms must be maintained, even under the most difficult of circumstances, and that the Network is appropriately and particularly concerned with the basic rights of scientists and scholars. The meeting participants were gratified to review the documentation on the many individual human rights ‘cases’ that the Network had addressed, and in some instances helped redress, during the previous two years and expressed determination to continue those efforts. During the meeting it considered amongst other issues the rights of scientists to work and communicate with others, in different situations in the world. The importance of maintaining the rights of these colleagues to freely work and travel in the pursuit of science, and exchange ideas with others in their field, even across the most apparently intransigent political divides, was strongly endorsed by the Network. The participants expressed their opposition to boycotts and moratoria of scientific exchange between institutions and among individuals. The members of the Network also expressed concern about excessive difficulties in obtaining permission to, and visas for, travel. The Network members were pleased to note new and positive developments regarding scientific cooperation, for example, those between Israeli and Palestinian academics and institutions which promote the exchange of ideas and may serve as an example for constructive non-violent action in other similar situations.

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International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies With Gratitude On the occasion of its seventh biennial meeting, the members of the Executive Committee of the International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies acknowledge with gratitude the generous support received from the British Academy, Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation, Richard Lounsbery Foundation, Scherman Foundation, Inc., Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Open Society Fund, Royal Society (UK), National Academy of Sciences (USA), National Academy of Engineering (USA), and Institute of Medicine (USA). The Executive Committee would particularly like to thank the Royal Society, London for graciously hosting this three-day event and the British Academy for its generous organizational and administrative assistance prior to and during the event, as well as for hosting the meeting of the Israeli-Palestinian Science Organization following the Network meeting. We are particularly indebted to Ruth Cooper at the Royal Society, Jane Lyddon at the British Academy, and Jennifer Baky at the U.S. National Academies for their assistance to the Network’s secretariat in overseeing many programmatic, logistical, and administrative aspects of the meeting.

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International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS NETWORK of ACADEMIES AND SCHOLARLY SOCIETIES Executive Committee [See Appendix B for biographies.] Arjuna Aluwihare Sri Lanka Claude Cohen-Tannoudji France Pieter van Dijk* Netherlands François Jacob* France Belita Koiller Brazil (as of 2006) John Polanyi Canada Edoardo Vesentini Italy Torsten Wiesel* USA Executive Director Carol Corillon * Founding member

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International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS NETWORK of ACADEMIES AND SCHOLARLY SOCIETIES Participants and Academies Represented Albania – Albanian Academy of Sciences Rexhep Meidani Australia – National Academies Forum of Australia Derek Denton Austria – Austrian Academy of Sciences Hermann Hunger Bangladesh – Bangladesh Academy of Sciences M. Shamsher Ali Belgium – Royal Academy of Belgium Amand Lucas Bosnia and Herzegovina – Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina Muhamed Filipovic Canada – Royal Society of Canada Eva Kushner Chile – Chilean Academy of Sciences Tito Ureta Columbia – Columbian Academy of Exact, Physical, and Natural Sciences Moises Wasserman Costa Rica – National Academy of Sciences of Costa Rica Marino Protti Croatia – Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts Davorin Rudolf Czech Republic – The Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic Jiri Niederle Denmark – The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters Henrik Zahle

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International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies Egypt – Academy of Scientific Research and Technology of Egypt Ahamed M. Saleh Estonia – Estonian Academy of Sciences Peeter Tulviste Finland – Finnish Academies of Science and Letters Juha Sihvola France – French Academy of Sciences Claude Cohen-Tannoudji* Germany – German Academy of Natural Sciences, Leopoldina Johannes Eckert Ghana – The Ghana Academy of Arts and Sciences Felix I. D. Konotey-Ahulu Greece – Academy of Athens Emmanuel Roucounas Israel – The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities Daniel Friedmann Italy – Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei Massimmilla Baldo Ceolin Japan – Science Council of Japan Michiatsu Kaino Jordan – Royal Scientific Society of Jordan Khaled Zuhair Kahhaleh Kenya – Kenya National Academy of Sciences Joseph Otieno Malo Kosovo – Academy of Sciences and Arts of Kosovo Rexhep Ismajli Kyrgyzstan – National Academy of Sciences of the Kyrgyz Republic Janybek Jeyenbaev Mongolia – Mongolian Academy of Sciences Amarsanaa Jugnee

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International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies Morocco – Academy of the Kingdom of Morocco Driss Dahak Nepal – Royal Nepal Academy of Science and Technology Dayanand Bajracharya The Netherlands – Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences Pieter van Dijk* Norway – Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters Arne Haaland Slovenia – Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts Alenka Selih Sri Lanka – National Academy of Sciences of Sri Lanka Arjuna Aluwihare* Sweden – The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences Erling Norrby Switzerland – Council of the Swiss Scientific Academies Harald Reuter Taiwan – Academia Sinica Yuan T. Lee Uganda – Uganda National Academy of Sciences Paul Mugambi United Kingdom – The Royal Society Lorna Casselton United States of America – The National Academies Peter Agre Carol Corillon Torsten Wiesel* Regional Academies Academia Europaea Arnold Wolfendale African Academy of Sciences Gideon Barak A. Okelo

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International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies Pontifical Academy Nicola Cabibbo Guests Upendra Baxi, India Dan Bitan, Israel Gregg Bloche, United States Phillip Campbell, United Kingdom Michael Clegg, United States Ralf Dahrendorf, United Kingdom Hasan Dweik, Palestine Julia Higgins, United Kingdom Robert Hinde, United Kingdom Latsami Khamphoui, Laos Janet Lowenthal, United States Nicholas Mann, United Kingdom Jonathan Marks, United Kingdom Sari Nusseibeh, Palestine Onora O’Neill, United Kingdom Nigel Rodley, United Kingdom Peter Schindler, Switzerland John Sulston, United Kingdom Menahem Yaari, Israel * Executive Committee member

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International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies CONTENTS     Introduction   1     Reports: Regional Breakout Groups   3      Africa (Sub-Saharan),   3      Americas,   6      Asia,   7      Europe,   10      Middle East and North Africa   11      Discussion,   12     Symposium: Scientists, Human Rights, and Prospects for the Future   17      Welcome – Dame Julia Higgins,   17      Overview and Introductions – Dr. Torsten Wiesel,   18     Philosophical and Legal Aspects of Human Rights   19      Theoretical Underpinnings of the Human Rights Concept Baroness O’Neill,   19      Effectiveness of Domestic and International Remedies Dr. Pieter van Dijk,   26      Justice Gone Awry: The Imprisonment of Dr. Thomas Butler Dr. Peter Agre,   33     Torture and Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment   39      Torture in the 21st Century – Sir Nigel Rodley,   39      Torture in Times of Terror – Professor Upendra Baxi,   45      After Abu Ghraib: Medical Ethics, Human Rights, and the Laws of War Dr. Gregg Bloche and Professor Jonathan H. Marks,   50

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International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies     Human Rights, Tolerance, and Peace   61      Welcome and Overview – Professor Claude Cohen-Tannoudji,   61      Joint Statement – Professors Sari Nusseibeh and Menachem Magidor,   61      Views of Science and Tolerance Today in the Middle East Professors Sari Nusseibeh and Menahem Yaari,   64      Human Rights and Our Future – Lord Dahrendorf,   70      Concluding Remarks,   80     Max Perutz Memorial Lecture   83      Welcome – Dr. Torsten Wiesel,   83      Max Perutz: Chemist, Molecular Biologist, Human Rights Activist Sir John Meurig Thomas,   84      The Archimedean Level: Right in the Face of Might Professor Sari Nusseibeh,   91      Discussion,   98      Workshop: Scientists, Human Rights, and Prospects for the Future   103      Welcome and Introductory Remarks – Professor Lorna Casselton,   103      Purpose, Function, and Future of the Network, a Discussion Dr. Torsten Wiesel,   104      Peace and Security through Science – Professors M. Shamsher Ali and Robert Hinde,   127      Torture, Psychiatric Abuse, and Health Professionals Professor Tito Ureta,   135      Barriers to the Universality of Science, Including Boycotts Professors Yuan T. Lee and Michael Clegg,   142      Status and Future of the Israeli-Palestinian Science Organization (IPSO) Professor Harald Reuter,   152 Appendix A   – Speakers’ Biographies   157 Appendix B   – Executive Committee Members’ Biographies   161