specific group.76 Equity efforts need to address not just individual needs but also the systemic changes needed to build and sustain educational, research, and workplace environments that promote effective participation in an increasingly pluralistic society. As described below (Box 4-7), such structures would include proactive recruiting, programs to enhance team-building and interpersonal skills, compensation equity, family friendly policies, mentoring and career development programs for junior and senior employees, and accountability through annual appraisals and evaluations.

Accountability and Evaluation

Program evaluation must be an integral part of any diversity initiative. Models for some best practices have begun to emerge from some ADVANCE institutions (Box 5-5).77 However, none of the ADVANCE institutions have to date completed their 5-year institutional transformation grant, so evaluation of the success of these programs is not possible. Progress can be gleaned from annual reports to NSF78 and on many of the individual program Web sites.

Effective assessment is an iterative self-diagnostic process. It ideally involves continuous cycles of program improvement and refinement. A program should incorporate a hypothesis, a set of measurable goals, and should collect baseline (formative) and outcomes (summative) data to test that hypothesis. Reasoned analyses and plans are followed by “experimental” trials with continuous testing, learning, and program refinement from those planned trials. A percentage of total program funding should be allotted to evaluation activities and an individual should be designated to be responsible for data collection and analysis; 5% of total project funding is a common allocation for evaluation in federal programs.79


G Custred and T Wood (1996). California’s Proposition 209, http://www.acri.org/209/209text.html; Gratz v. Bollinger, No. 02-516, 123 S. Ct. 2411 (2003); Grutter v. Bollinger, No. 02-241, 123 S. Ct. 2325 (2003); A Klein (2004). Affirmative-action opponents suffer setbacks in Colorado and Michigan. Chronicle of Higher Education 50(31):A23; R Roach (2005). Ford diversity fellows urged to defend affirmative action. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, http://www.diverseeducation.com/artman/publish/article_4898.shtml; P Schmidt (2006). From “Minority” to “Diversity”. The transformation of formerly race-exclusive programs may be leaving some students out in the cold. Chronicle of Higher Education 52(22): A24; P Schmidt (2006). Southern Illinois U. and Justice Dept. near accord on minority fellowships. Chronicle of Higher Education 52(22):A26; R Clegg (2006). Faculty hiring preferences and the law. Chronicle of Higher Education 52(37):B13.


See SV Rosser (2006). Creating an inclusive work environment. In: Biological, Social, and Organizational Components of Success for Women in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.


Available at http://www.nsf.gov/advance.


National Research Council (1996). The National Scholars Program: Excellence with Diversity for the Future. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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