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Beyond Bias and Barriers: Fulfilling the Potential of Women in Academic Science and Engineering
activities or to attend work-related conferences and meetings. Theyshould establish policies for extending grant support for researcherswho take a leave of absence due to caregiving responsibilities, andcreate additional funding mechanisms to provide for interim technicalor administrative support during a leave of absence related tocaregiving.
5-11. Federal agencies and foundations should lay out clear guidelinesand leverage their resources and existing laws to increase the scienceand engineering talent developed in this country, including enforcingfederal anti-discrimination laws at universities and other higher education institutions through regular compliance reviews and prompt andthorough investigation of discrimination complaints.
5-12. Federal enforcement agencies should ensure that the range oftheir enforcement efforts covers the full scope of activities involvingscience and engineering that are governed by the anti-discriminationlaws. If violations are found, the full range of remedies for violation ofthe anti-discrimination laws should be sought.
5-13. Federal enforcement efforts should evaluate whether universitieshave engaged in any of the types of discrimination banned under theanti-discrimination laws, including: intentional discrimination, sexualharassment, retaliation, disparate impact discrimination, and failure tomaintain required policies and procedures.
5-14. Federal compliance review efforts should encompass a sufficiently broad number and range of institutions of higher education tosecure a substantial change in policies and practices nationwide. Typesof institutions that should be included in compliance reviews include 2-year and 4-year institutions; institutions of undergraduate education;institutions that grant graduate degrees; state universities; private colleges; and educational enterprises, including national laboratories andindependent research institutes, which may not be affiliated with universities.
5-15. Federal enforcement agencies, including the Equal EmploymentOpportunity Commission (EEOC); the Department of Justice, the Department of Labor, and the Department of Education; and individualfederal granting agencies’ Offices of Civil Rights should encourage andprovide technical assistance on how to achieve diversity in universityprograms and employment. Possible activities include providing technical assistance to educational institutions to help them to comply withanti-discrimination laws, creating a clearinghouse for dissemination of