likely to preclude a woman with science or engineering training from pursuing or advancing in an academic career.26 As discussed above, women scientists and engineers disproportionately marry fellow scientists and engineers.27 For example, 44% of women members of the American Physical Society are married to physicists, and another 25% are married to other scientists. 80% of women mathematicians and 33% of women chemists are married to men in their fields.28 Marrying within an academic discipline, termed disciplinary endogamy, is more widespread in the sciences and engineering than in other academic fields. It can create problems for hiring (especially for women), because most universities do not have dual-career hiring policies.29 Even in the 1980s, 20% of faculty resignations were related to spousal employment.30 Wolf-Wendel and colleagues have surveyed dual-career policies at 360 institutions of higher education, performed case studies of five colleges and universities, and compiled a detailed compendium of institutional policies and practices.31

That said, women on highly competitive academic career tracks are less likely to marry or reproduce and more likely to divorce than comparable men or than women in lower-level academic posts.32 A longitudinal study of more than 160,000 academics shows that two-thirds of women who took academic jobs on the fast track before they had become mothers never had children.33 While there was no change in marriage rates of PhD recipients from 1978 to 1994, both men and women PhDs are increasingly


Y Xie and KA Shauman (2003). Women in Science: Career Processes and Outcomes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; D Ginther (2006). The economics of gender differences in employment outcomes in academia. In Biological, Social, and Organizational Components of Success for Women in Academic Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; MA Mason and M Goulden (2004). Marriage and baby blues: Redefining gender equity in the academy. Annals AAPSS 596:86-103.


MA Mason and M Goulden (2002). Do babies matter? The effect of family formation on the lifelong careers of academic men and women. Academe 88(6):21-27,


Stanford Study on Dual-Career Couples, see; LE Wolf-Wendel, SB Twombly, and S Rice (2000). Dual-career-couples: Keeping them together. Journal of Higher Education 71(3):291-321.


LE Wolf-Wendel, S Twombly, and S Rice (2000). The two-body problem: Dual-career-couples hiring practices in higher education. The Journal of Higher Education 71(3):291-321.


D Burke (1988). A New Academic Marketplace. New York: Greenwood Press.


L Wolf-Wendel, SB Twombly, and S Rice (2003). The Two-Body Problem: Dual-Career-Couple Hiring Practices in Higher Education. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.


Drago et al. (2005), ibid; B Sullivan, C Hollenshead, and G Smith (2004). Developing and implementing work-family policies for faculty. Academe 90(6), Academe/2004/04nd/04ndsull.htm.


Mason and Goulden (2002), ibid.

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