Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA) (29 U.S.C. § 2601)
The FMLA applies to all organizations with 50 or more employees; it gives professors and other university employees (including most postdoctoral scholars and some graduate students) the legal right to up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave per year if the employee or his or her child, partner, or parent has a serious health condition, or if he or she has or adopts a child. Giving leave is mandatory. Covered employers are prohibited from denying or interfering with leave, including implying that leave will be seen as a lack of commitment to career.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (42 USC § 12101)g
Employees may not be discriminated against because they are caring for a family member whose illness or disability is covered by the ADA.
(9th Cir. 1987)), the plaintiffs—women faculty—lost but the Oregon State legislature subsequently passed a law against discrimination in the state’s institutions of higher education.
Are the outcomes of individual cases leading to lasting change in organizations? Affirmative action laws have made inroads for women, but they have not always resulted in better working conditions in industry or academe. Even in companies, many of which have private dispute processes, workers file 25,000 cases of sex discrimination a year with the EEOC. About one-fifth result in favorable outcomes for complainants. In a retrospective 10-year analysis of 2,000 firms that filed EEOC reports in 2000,68 Hirsh has shown that sex discrimination lawsuits often cause other firms in the same industry sector to make pre-emptive changes, apparently to