The American Psychological Association (APA) recommends that the individuals who “fail to make the corrections necessary for gender equity should be given feedback, and their effectiveness in correcting these problems should be reflected in their compensation.”82 Additional recommendations include establishing oversight committees within schools. For example, Harvard and Yale have created a position of senior vice provost for diversity and faculty development; Princeton for some time has had a person in charge of these issues. In each case, the person is a member of the university’s central administration, is a highly respected member of the faculty, and has the ability to bring together people and practices from across the university and to initiate and implement new programs.83 Other universities, such as Duke and MIT, have advisory committees or councils on faculty diversity.


Reports suggest that both women and minority-group members perceive the climate of university science and engineering departments as “uninviting, unappealing, and unaccommodating,”84 and they cite isolation as a reason for leaving.85 Women tend to be less satisfied than men with their fit in their departments, the racial and ethnic diversity of their department faculty, and the quality of mentoring that they receive from senior faculty.86 Good mentoring is important for postdoctoral scholars as they develop greater independence and for junior faculty as they navigate the professional and personal changes at the start of their faculty careers.87 Mentoring is also a critical component in creating and maintaining a diverse workforce (Box 4-7). To foster mentoring, some universities pair junior faculty with a senior mentor who is encouraged to provide guidance, career advice, and even intervention on behalf of the junior faculty member.88 In addition to providing mentoring to graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and junior faculty, it is important to train and encourage all faculty to become good mentors.89


APA (2000), ibid.


Harvard University (2005), ibid.


Trower and Chait (2002), ibid.


Nelson (2005), ibid.


CA Trower and JL Bleak (2004). The Study of New Scholars. Gender: Statistical Report [Universities]. Harvard Graduate School of Education.


NAS/NAE/IOM (1997). Adviser, Teacher, Role Model, Friend: On Being a Mentor to Students in Science and Engineering. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.


NAS/NAE/IOM (1997), ibid.


Harvard University (2005). Report from the Task Force on Women in Science and Engineering.

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