whereas among Native Americans and Latinos women are better represented in faculties than are men, the opposite is the case for African Americans and Asian Americans. And even though African American women earn doctorates at higher rates than African American men, they have a smaller representation on faculties.124 Among Asian Americans, 70% of faculty are male.125

Interviews with women faculty of color126 have revealed how closely race and gender bias are linked in their experiences. Nonetheless, the salience of race appears to be higher, and these faculty members feel that white women, who are doing better than faculty of color of either sex, have a cultural bias that causes difficulties for women of color. As one noted; “the discipline is really dominated by Western European notions.” In addition to having greater service obligations than whites in their universities because of their small numbers, women of color also are likely to have more extended responsibilities in their families and communities.127 Finally, they are even more likely than white women to have their legitimacy in the class room challenged. For all those reasons, it is critical that this group not be made invisible by inclusion in larger groups that do not share their issues. They need special and specific attention. As Turner says, it is important to break the conspiracy of silence about this group.

FUNDING-AGENCY-DRIVEN INSTITUTIONAL TRANSFORMATION

In addition to the university-specific practices detailed above, both public and private organizations have created awards aimed at advancing women in science and engineering by providing financial support for both individual women investigators and the institutions that support them. The goal of the NSF ADVANCE program (Box 5-5) is to create institutional changes that will help all faculty and diminish distinctions by gender and race or ethnicity.

The Clare Boothe Luce (CBL) program, the largest source of private

124

CB Leggon (2006). Women in science: Racial and ethnic differences and the differences they make. Journal of Technology Transfer 31:325-33.

125

Leggon (2006), ibid; Harvey (2003). 20th Anniversary of the Minorities in Higher Education Annual Status Report 2002-2003. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

126

CSV Turner (2002). Women of color in academe: Living with multiple marginality. Journal of Higher Education 73:74-93; D Jordan (2005). Sisters in Science. Ashland, OH: Purdue University Press.

127

ELJ Edmondson Bell and SM Nkomo (2001). Our Separate Ways. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.



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