National higher education organizations, including the American Council of Education (ACE), Association of American Universities, and the National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, through formation of an inter-institution monitoring body, could play a leading role in promoting equal treatment of women and men studying and working in our nation’s universities. Such a body could serve to recommend norms and measures, collect data, and track compliance and accountability across institutions. ACE is an umbrella organization encompassing all of higher education: degree-granting colleges, universities, and higher education-related associations, organizations, and corpora-tions.24 ACE, with its convening power and strong reputation for consensus-building, is the logical organization to take the initial step to convene higher education groups to discuss the creation of such a monitoring organization. A primary focus of the discussion should be on defining the scope and structure of data collection.

In addition, scientific and professional societies could serve in a role similar to that of the national governing bodies for sports25 and help to set professional and equity standards, collect and disseminate field-wide education and workforce data, and provide professional development training for members that include a component on bias in evaluation.

While opportunities for male and female athletes are an important issue, the possible implications of Title IX on educational opportunities for male and female college students have the potential of influencing many more students in a much more important manner. Access to high quality educational programs is more important from a policy standard point than whether one gets to play in intercollegiate soccer.

—James Monks, Department of Economics, University of Richmond26


ACE has over 1,800 member institutions and organizations. Among the over 100 national member organizations that are members of ACE are the American Association of State Colleges and Universities, American Association of University Professors, American Chemical Society, Association of American Colleges and Universities, Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of American Universities, National Association of Independent Colleges and Universities, National Association of College and University Business Officers, National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, and the National Collegiate Athletic Association.




J Monks (2005). Title IX Compliance and Preference for Men in College Admission (Working Paper 80). Ithaca, NY: Cornell Higher Education Research Institute,

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement