bility patterns differ between women and men; men who move prior to tenure tend to leave academe, while women tend to enter adjunct positions. For women faculty members, feelings of isolation, lack of respect of colleagues, and difficulty in integrating family and professional responsibilities are major factors in attrition from university careers. For universities, faculty attrition presents a serious loss both economically and in morale.
3-1. There is substantial attrition of both men and women along the science and engineering educational pathway to first academic position. The major differences between the patterns of attrition are at the transition points: fewer high school girls intend to major in science and engineering fields, more alter their intentions to major in science and engineering between high school and college, fewer women science and engineering graduates continue on to graduate school, and fewer women science and engineering PhDs are recruited into the applicant pools for tenure-track faculty positions.
3-2. Productivity does not differ between men and women science and engineering faculty, but it does between men and women graduate students and postdoctoral scholars. Differences in numbers of papers published, meetings attended, and grants written reflect the quality of faculty-student interactions.
3-3. There is substantial faculty mobility between initial appointment and tenure case. Faculty at Research I universities are half as likely as the overall population of faculty to move to other types of academic institutions. Men and women hired into tenure-track positions had a similar likelihood of changing jobs, but men were twice as likely to move from academia to other employment sectors (15.3% of men and 8.5% of women) and women were 40% more likely to move to an adjunct position (9.2% of men and 12.7% of women).
3-4. Overall, men and women science and engineering faculty who come up for tenure appear to receive it at similar rates. Differences in the rate at which men and women receive tenure vary substantially by field and by race or ethnicity. For example, in social sciences women are about 10% less likely than men to be awarded tenure. African American women science and engineering faculty were 10% less likely than men of all ethnicities to be awarded tenure.