lidity of Wein’s conclusion that milk represents “a uniquely valuable medium for a terrorist” than to its status as a threat to national security. Leitenberg, a senior research scholar at the University of Maryland’s Center for International Security Studies at Maryland (CISSM), offers detailed evidence that contradicts key assumptions upon which Wein based his model, most notably the ease by which terrorists could obtain botulinum toxin and use it to launch an attack. More generally, Leitenberg notes that several existing historical reviews of agricultural terrorism contain inaccuracies that serve to inflate the number of instances of actual attacks. As a result, he concludes, U.S. policy has been influenced by “gross exaggeration surrounding the potential for bioterrorism.”

Using the controversy over the Wein model as a jumping-off point, Dr. David Acheson, Director of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Office of Food Safety, Defense, and Outreach within the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, outlines the FDA’s multifaceted approach to protecting the U.S. food supply from attack in this chapter’s final paper. Acheson explains how the agency uses risk management and vulnerability assessment tools to determine which food/ agent combinations present the greatest threats to U.S. biosecurity, and in particular how these analyses have raised concerns about the potential consequences of the deliberate contamination of milk with botulinum toxin. He then describes how the FDA addresses such findings through the development of guidance documents and training programs to prevent and mitigate the effects of specific bioterrorism threats.


Clay Detlefsen, M.B.A., Esq.1

International Dairy Foods Association

After September 11, 2001, leaders in this country vowed that we would never be caught off guard again and began an extensive process by which every imaginable terrorist threat scenario is analyzed. The laudatory goal is to identify reasonable mitigation strategies for any threats within the realm of possibility of being perpetrated. More than four years later, that effort is continuing and expanding. Today, virtually every industry is working with the government to harden itself against a potential terrorist attack. The food industries are no exception, and the dairy industry, in particular, has been quite active and proactive.

I have worked with the government and various industries on food-specific scenarios involving terrorism, and I have participated in government and industry


Vice President for Regulatory Affairs.

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