reactive nitrogen (a factor in carbon storage); and the impacts of air pollutants on ecosystem function and emissions. She served as editor for the Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres from 1997 to 2000, is a past member of the NRC’s Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data and the Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry, and a current member of its Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate. Dr. Carroll received her Sc.D. in atmospheric chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

CHRISTOPHER B. FIELD is director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution of Washington and professor by courtesy in the Department of Biological Sciences at Stanford University. Trained as an ecologist, Dr. Field has conducted environmental research from tropical rainforests to deserts to alpine tundra. He developed an evolutionary approach to understanding the spatial organization of plant canopies and the adaptive significance of leaf aging. These studies led to work on the role of nitrogen in regulating plant growth and photosynthesis and suggested ways that plant physiological responses could be summarized with a few parameters, providing a basis for predicting many aspects of ecosystem function at very large scales. He has recently emphasized formalizing approaches for summarizing plant responses into models that simulate ecosystem exchanges of carbon, water, and energy at the global scale. These models help test hypotheses and understand the future status of terrestrial ecosystems, especially responses to and influences on global change factors like increased atmospheric carbon dioxide or altered climate. Dr. Field is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the NRC’s Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology. He received his Ph.D. in biology from Stanford University.

EDWARD L. MILES is the Virginia and Prentice Bloedel Professor of Marine and Public Affairs in the School of Marine Affairs at the University of Washington and senior fellow at the Joint Institute for the Study of Atmosphere and Oceans. Since 1965 Dr. Miles has worked at the interface of the natural and social sciences and law with a focus on outer space, the oceans, and the global and regional climate systems. Trained originally in political science and international relations, he has invested close to 30 years in learning about oceanography and fisheries science/management and 13 years in learning about the planetary climate system. His research and teaching interests have encompassed international science and technology policy; the design, creation, and management of international environmental regimes; a wide variety of problems in national and international ocean policy; and the impacts of climate variability and climate change at global and regional space scales. Dr. Miles is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the NRC’s Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change and Policy and Global Affairs Committee. He received his Ph.D. in international relations/comparative politics from the University of Denver.

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