are not prioritized or necessarily similar in scope but rather reflect the workshop participants’ on-site thinking.

  • How do CO2 and a warming climate interact to affect soil moisture, ocean acidification, and the carbon balance of ecosystems (both terrestrial and marine)?

  • What is the role of biogenic VOCs in generating ozone, and what is the role of ozone in degrading crop yields?

  • What is the role of changes in surface albedo in changing climate? What are the carbon-cycle implications of this?

  • What is the role of air pollutants in degrading crop yields? How do these effects change with warming?

  • How might human pressures for increased food production lead to an expansion of agricultural land, and what are the costs in ecosystem services for the converted land?

  • How do human decisions about cropping, land use or cover change, and urbanization influence atmosphere-ecosystem interactions?

  • How do greenhouse gas increases and associated warming, land use, and air pollution interact with biodiversity?

  • What is the relative role of extreme events and average conditions in establishing the impacts of atmosphere-ecosystem interactions? Under what conditions do atmosphere-ecosystem interactions enhance the value of investments in adaptation and mitigation?

  • How do drivers relate with stresses to produce certain vulnerabilities/ adaptive capacities?

  • How do socioeconomic, institutional, and environmental processes influence environmental change and adaptive capacity (livelihoods, migration)?

  • How does information get to those who need it? What kinds of information are most useful to decision makers, resource managers, and others who could benefit?

  • How can we develop improved tools and strategies for addressing multiple environmental stresses, such as improved observational and modeling capabilities, integrated sensors, regional information systems, and predictive capabilities?

  • How can societal resilience to multiple environmental stresses be improved? How can adaptive management approaches be developed and implemented?

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement