B
Committee Biographies

James C. Williams, Chair, NAE, is professor of materials science and engineering and Honda Chair at the Ohio State University (OSU). He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a fellow of ASM International, a fellow of TMS-AIME, and a former member of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board. He was the ASM/TMS Distinguished Lecturer in Materials and Society in 1997, and the ASM Campbell Lecturer in 1999. Dr. Williams’ research has focused on phase transformations, processing, and structure-property relations in high-performance materials, mainly Ti, Ni, and Al alloys. He has also been extensively involved in technology policy related to materials. Before OSU, Dr. Williams held research and leadership positions at General Electric, Boeing, and Rockwell. He also spent 13 years at Carnegie Mellon University, where he was a professor, president of the Mellon Institute, and dean of engineering. He is regularly invited to lecture at meetings and conferences both in the United States and abroad. Dr. Williams has published over 200 papers based on his research, is the editor of the three-volume proceedings of the 1976 International Titanium Conference, held in Moscow, and holds two patents. In addition, he served as commissioner on the National Research Council’s Commission for Engineering and Technical Systems, as well as chair of the Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Division Review Committee, Materials Science and Technology. He has received the ASM Gold Medal Award (1992), the TMS Leadership Award (1993), and the Spirit Award, Prairie View A&M University (1994), in addition to the Distinguished Engineering Alumnus Award (1992) and the College of Engineering Distinguished Lecturer Award (1999), both from the



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A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative B Committee Biographies James C. Williams, Chair, NAE, is professor of materials science and engineering and Honda Chair at the Ohio State University (OSU). He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, a fellow of ASM International, a fellow of TMS-AIME, and a former member of the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board. He was the ASM/TMS Distinguished Lecturer in Materials and Society in 1997, and the ASM Campbell Lecturer in 1999. Dr. Williams’ research has focused on phase transformations, processing, and structure-property relations in high-performance materials, mainly Ti, Ni, and Al alloys. He has also been extensively involved in technology policy related to materials. Before OSU, Dr. Williams held research and leadership positions at General Electric, Boeing, and Rockwell. He also spent 13 years at Carnegie Mellon University, where he was a professor, president of the Mellon Institute, and dean of engineering. He is regularly invited to lecture at meetings and conferences both in the United States and abroad. Dr. Williams has published over 200 papers based on his research, is the editor of the three-volume proceedings of the 1976 International Titanium Conference, held in Moscow, and holds two patents. In addition, he served as commissioner on the National Research Council’s Commission for Engineering and Technical Systems, as well as chair of the Los Alamos National Laboratory’s Division Review Committee, Materials Science and Technology. He has received the ASM Gold Medal Award (1992), the TMS Leadership Award (1993), and the Spirit Award, Prairie View A&M University (1994), in addition to the Distinguished Engineering Alumnus Award (1992) and the College of Engineering Distinguished Lecturer Award (1999), both from the

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A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative University of Washington. Dr. Williams received a Ph.D. from the University of Washington in 1968. Cherry A. Murray, Vice Chair, NAS, NAE, is the Deputy Director for Science and Technology (DDST) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Murray is a physicist who has been nationally recognized for her work in surface physics, light scattering, and complex fluids. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. As the DDST, Murray leads and oversees the laboratory’s multidisciplinary science and technology activities, including the laboratory’s $110 million institutional research and development program. Murray, formerly senior vice president for Physical Sciences and Wireless Research at Bell Labs Lucent Technologies, first joined Bell Labs in 1978 and held a number of Bell Lab research and management positions. In 2000, Murray became vice president for Physical Sciences and then senior vice president in 2001. In this role, Murray managed the wireless, nanotechnology, and physical research laboratories and was chair of the New Jersey Nanotechnology Consortium. Murray received her B.S. and Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She serves on the governing boards of the National Research Council and Argonne National Laboratory. She is the recipient of numerous awards, and Discover Magazine named her one of the “50 Most Important Women in Science” in 2002. A. Michael Andrews II is vice president and chief technology officer at L-3 Communications, reporting to the chairman and chief executive officer. He guides the company’s long-term R&D initiatives, provides input on new solutions to DOD requirements, and continually evaluates the evolving technologies used in L-3 products. Before that, he served as deputy assistant secretary of research and technology and chief scientist for the United States Army, a position he held since 1998. Dr. Andrews’ effective work with senior staff principals, scientists, and engineers from the Army, DOD, and industry significantly enhanced the Army’s efforts to develop the Future Combat Systems, Objective Force, and Force Transformation. Prior to joining the Army in 1997, Dr. Andrews held a variety of corporate engineering leadership and system development positions at Rockwell International. He began his career at Rockwell in 1971, working on electro-optic and infrared research and development products. An author of over 50 technical articles, Dr. Andrews holds several patents in infrared sensors, materials, and signal processors. He is a recipient of various honors, including the Presidential Rank Award, the Meritorious Civilian Service Award, Rockwell’s Engineer of the Year Award, and the University of Illinois Distinguished Alumnus Award and is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Dr. Andrews received his

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A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative B.S. and M.S. in electrical engineering from the University of Oklahoma and his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Illinois. Mark J. Cardillo is the executive director of the Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation. Dr. Cardillo received his B.S. from the Stevens Institute of Technology in 1964 and his Ph.D. in chemistry from Cornell University in 1970. He served as a research associate at Brown University, a CNR research scientist at the University of Genoa, and a PRF research fellow in the mechanical engineering department at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1975, Dr. Cardillo joined Bell Laboratories as a member of the technical staff in the surface physics department. He was appointed head of the chemical physics research department in 1981 and subsequently named head of the photonics materials research department. Most recently, he was director of broadband access research. Dr. Cardillo is a fellow of the American Physical Society. He has been the Phillips Lecturer at Haverford College and a Langmuir Lecturer of the American Chemical Society. He received the Medard Welch Award of the American Vacuum Society in 1987, the Innovations in Real Materials Award in 1998, and the Pel Associates Award in Applied Polymer Chemistry in 2000. Crystal Cunanan is vice president for development and operations at ReVision Optics, Inc. Previously, she was director of tissue engineering at Arbor Surgical Technologies, Inc., following her tenure as manager of the biosciences group at Edwards Lifesciences Corporation. She has over 20 years of industrial experience in permanently implanted devices. Her research has focused on all modes of interaction between biomedical devices and the body. Specific topics have included the chemistry, design, testing, and qualification of polymeric and biopolymeric implant materials, such as silicones, silicone copolymers, acrylates, hydrogels, collages, and hyaluronic acid; the development of new in vivo and in vitro models to study material-biological interactions, such as cell adhesion, migration, toxicity, and wound healing; and the characterization of material surfaces and the characterization’s relationship to biological reactions. Ms. Cunanan holds 26 issued U.S. patents and published applications and is the author of over 40 papers, presentations, and published abstracts. She is active in several professional societies and serves on the board of the Healthcare Businesswoman’s Association. She is the chair of the National Academies roundtable discussion group on Biomedical Engineered Materials and Applications and has served as chair of the industrial advisory board committee of the University of Washington Engineered Biomaterials (UWEB) Engineering Research Center. Ms. Cunanan received a B.S. in biology and a B.S. in chemistry from the University of California, Irvine, in 1982, and an M.S. in chemistry from the University of California, San Diego, in 1984. In 2004,

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A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative Ms. Cunanan was awarded a certificate in bioinformatics by the California State University, Fullerton. Peter H. Diamandis is the chair, founder, and president of the X Prize Foundation, a nonprofit organization promoting the formation of a space-tourism industry by offering a $10 million prize. Dr. Diamandis is also founder, chair, and CEO of Zero Gravity Corporation, a commercial space company developing private, FAA-certified parabolic flight utilizing Boeing 727-200 aircraft. He was a co-founder of Space Adventures, as well as a co-founder and chair of Starport.com, a leading Internet site for space exploration, which was acquired by SPACE.com in 1990. In 1987, Dr. Diamandis co-founded the International Space University (ISU), where he served as the university’s first program director and trustee. Before that, Dr. Diamandis served as chair of Students for the Exploration and Development of Space (SEDS), an organization he founded at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1980. Dr. Diamandis received his undergraduate and graduate degrees in aerospace engineering from MIT and his M.D. from Harvard Medical School. He has conducted research in a number of fields, including molecular genetics, space medicine, and launch vehicle design. Dr. Diamandis has received a number of awards, including MIT’s Kresge Award, the 1986 Space Industrialization Fellowship, the 1988 Aviation Week & Space Technology Laurel, the 1993 Space Frontier Pioneer Award, and the Russian 1995 K.E. Tsiolkovsky Award. Paul A. Fleury, NAS, NAE, is dean of engineering at Yale University, where he also serves as the Frederick W. Beinecke Professor of Engineering and of Applied Physics and as a professor of physics. His primary research interests lie in materials performance and properties as revealed by modern probes such as lasers, neutrons, and synchrotron light sources. Dr. Fleury joined Yale after 4 years as the dean of engineering at the University of New Mexico. Prior to that, he worked at AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, for 30 years, serving as director of materials and processing research. In 1992-1993, Dr. Fleury was vice president of research and exploratory technologies at Sandia National Laboratories. He has published more than 130 technical papers in scientific books and journals and holds five patents on optical and electro-optical devices. Dr. Fleury is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science, as well as a member of the American Society for Engineering Education and the Connecticut Academy of Science and Engineering. He is the recipient of the Frank Isakson Prize of the American Physical Society and the Michelson Morley Award. Dr. Fleury received B.S. and M.S. degrees in physics at John Carroll University in 1960 and 1962, respectively. He earned his Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1965. He was awarded the SRC Senior

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A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative Visiting Fellowship at Oxford University, as well as a National Science Foundation graduate fellowship. Dr. Fleury is a member of Sigma Xi and Tau Beta Pi. Paul B. Germeraad is the founder and president of Intellectual Assets, Inc., a professional advisory services firm specializing in integrated business, research and development, and intellectual property processes. His past roles include chief operating officer for Aurigin Systems, Inc., where he focused on the development of the company’s intellectual asset management products for the competitive intelligence, licensing, and R&D communities. Prior to joining Aurigin in 1998, Dr. Germeraad served as vice president of corporate research for Avery Dennison, where he directed the company’s corporate research center. Before joining Avery Dennison, Dr. Germeraad held a variety of R&D and management positions at Raychem Corporation and was director of James River Corporation’s Flexible Packaging Technical Center. Dr. Germeraad is a graduate of the University of California, San Diego, with a B.A. in chemistry. In addition, he holds a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of California, Irvine, and an L.L.B. from La Salle University in Chicago. Dr. Germeraad is a past chairman of the board of the Industrial Research Institute, an organization of approximately 300 chief technology officers whose organizations account for over 70 percent of all U.S. R&D spending. Dr. Germeraad holds 10 U.S. patents and 12 foreign counterparts, is a contributing author to two books, and is the author of over a dozen refereed articles. Alan H. Goldstein is the Fierer Chair and director of the program in biomedical materials engineering science at Alfred University. The university has been a member of NSF’s Industry-University Center for Biosurfaces (IUCB) and has received support from the Keck Foundation to establish a center for bioceramic interfacing. Dr. Goldstein has been a member of the Biomedical Engineering Materials and Applications (BEMA) roundtable, a shared activity of the IOM, NAE, and NRC. Through his continuing participation in BEMA, Dr. Goldstein is working to define the key issues at the cutting edge of biomaterials engineering, with a special focus on the coming integration of biomolecules with nonliving materials. He has proposed that this area, which he has termed biomolecular-materials composites, will create both the most useful physical systems and the most challenging bioethical situations at the interface between bioengineering and nanotechnology. In 2003, Dr. Goldstein’s work in the bioethics area received international recognition in the form of a Shell-Economist Award for his essay on the topic of nature versus nanoengineering. Dr. Goldstein’s research focuses on topics ranging from protein engineering to biomaterials, and he is considered the world’s foremost expert on bacterial biodegradation of mineral phosphates. Prior to joining the faculty at Alfred, Dr. Goldstein was a professor at California State University, Los Angeles and

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A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative at the University of Arizona and was a research scientist at Chevron. He received his Ph.D. in genetics and physical chemistry from the University of Arizona. Mary L. Good, NAE, is the Donaghey University Professor and dean of the Donaghey College of Information Science and Systems Engineering at the University of Arkansas, Little Rock. Previously Dr. Good served for 4 years as the under secretary for technology for the Technology Administration in the Department of Commerce, a presidentially appointed, Senate-confirmed position. In addition to her role as under secretary for technology, Dr. Good chaired the National Science and Technology Council’s Committee on Technological Innovation (NSTC/CTI) and served on the NSTC Committee on National Security. Before joining the administration, Dr. Good was the senior vice president of technology at Allied Signal, Inc., where she was responsible for centralized research and technology organizations. She was a member of the management committee and responsible for technology transfer and commercialization support for new technologies. This position followed assignments as president of Allied Signal’s Engineered Material Research Center, director of the UOP Research Center, and president of the Signal Research Center. Before her various positions in industrial research management, Dr. Good spent more than 25 years as a teacher and researcher in the Louisiana State University system. Dr. Good was appointed to the National Science Board by President Carter in 1980 and again by President Reagan in 1986. She was chairman of that board from 1988 until 1991, when she received an appointment from President Bush to become a member of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). Dr. Good also serves as the managing member for Venture Capital Investors, LLC, and on the boards of Biogen in Cambridge, Massachusetts; of IDEXX Laboratories in Westbrook, Maine; and of Acxiom Board in Little Rock, Arkansas. In addition, Dr. Good has served on the boards of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Cincinnati Milacron, and Ameritech. She was also a member of the National Advisory Board for the state of Arkansas. Dr. Good received her B.S. in chemistry from the University of Central Arkansas and her M.S. and Ph.D. in inorganic chemistry from the University of Arkansas. She has also received numerous awards and honorary degrees from many colleges and universities, including, most recently, the College of William and Mary, Polytechnic University of New York, Louisiana State University, and Michigan State University. Thomas S. Hartwick is retired from general management in the aerospace industry. He has more than 45 years of research and development, technology transfer/insertion, and mainstream business experience supporting all segments of the U.S. government. Dr. Hartwick previously worked at Hughes Aircraft Company, Aerospace Corporation, and TRW. General management positions include

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A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative electro-optic R&D laboratories, chip R&D and manufacturing, corporate strategic planning, a commercial chip company, and a major satellite payload program. His areas of published research include sensors and imaging, optical communications, magnetic materials, microwave devices, molecular lasers, far-infrared lasers and their applications, and laser heterodyne radiometry. Since leaving the aerospace industry in 1995, Dr. Hartwick has served on a number of academic, government, and industry boards in a technical management role. He is chair (emeritus) of the Advisory Group on Electron Devices in the Office of the Secretary of Defense, chair of NRC committees on aviation security R&D, active with the Defense Science Board and GAO, and active for two decades with the National Technology Transfer Center. He currently serves on five corporate boards/committees and on four government committees. Dr. Hartwick received his Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Southern California, his M.S. in physics from UCLA, and his B.S. in physics from the University of Illinois. Maynard A. Holliday is a director at Evolution Robotics, a multinational operating company of Idealab that develops robotics solutions and partners with manufacturers to integrate those technologies into intelligent devices for commercial and consumer use. Over the past 20 years, his notable work experience has included robots for use at the Chernobyl disaster site and he was twice named a finalist for the U.S. astronaut corps. Mr. Holliday has managed interdisciplinary projects of international and commercial importance at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and at Schlumberger Semiconductor Solutions in Silicon Valley. He was awarded the AAAS Science Engineering and Diplomacy Fellowship in 1995-1996, bringing him to Washington, D.C., to work on technology policy at the U.S. State Department and the Department of Energy (DOE). In 1996, Mr. Holliday assembled and led the joint DOE/NASA International Pioneer Project team that designed and fabricated a radiation-hardened telerobotic mobile vehicle for site characterization and remediation tasks at Chernobyl Unit 4. While at DOE he was awarded the Meritorious Service award, its highest, for his work on the bilateral U.S.–Russian Nuclear Material Security Task Force. Mr. Holliday holds an M.S. in mechanical engineering design from Stanford University, where he focused on robotics, international security, and arms control. He also holds a B.S. in mechanical engineering from Carnegie Mellon University. Richard L. Irving has served in pastoral positions for communities in California for over 20 years. Since 1997, he has filled the role of senior pastor for the Lakewood Village Community Church in Long Beach, California. Previously, he served for 15 years as the pastor of the First Congregational Church of Santa Ana and for 2 years as the associate pastor for the Community Church of Corona Del

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A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative Mar. Rev. Irving received his M.Div. from the Claremont School of Theology in 1980. He has pastoral standing with the National Association of Congregational Christian Churches, the International Council of Community Churches, and the United Church of Christ. Rev. Irving also serves as a community representative on the Edwards Healthcare Animal Care and Use Committee. Prior to pursuing his theological studies, Rev. Irving served for over 5 years as a member of the U.S. Air Force. He commenced military service as an aircraft maintenance officer with the Air Force, with the rank of captain, after receiving his B.A. from California State University, Fullerton. Then, after receiving an M.A. from that same institution, Rev. Irving worked as a program analyst trainee for the Space and Missile Systems Organization of the Air Force. Donald H. Levy, NAS, is the Albert A. Michelson Distinguished Service Professor in the University of Chicago’s James Franck Institute, Department of Chemistry and Physical Sciences Collegiate Division. His current research involves laser spectroscopy in supersonic molecular beams. During his 37-year tenure with the University of Chicago, Dr. Levy has been an Alfred P. Sloan Fellow, a DuPont Faculty Fellow, a John Simon Guggenheim Fellow, and the Ralph and Mary Otis Isham Professor. Before that Dr. Levy spent 3 years at Cambridge University under NIH and NATO postdoctoral fellowships. He received his B.A. from Harvard University in 1961 and his Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1965. Dr. Levy is a fellow of the American Physical Society, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He is the recipient of the Plyler Prize of the American Physical Society and the Optical Society of America’s Ellis R. Lippincott Award. In addition to the Lady Davis Visiting Professorship at the Technion, Dr. Levy’s lectureships include appointments as the Bourke Lecturer, Faraday Division, Royal Society of Chemistry; the Jeremy Musher Memorial Lecturer, Hebrew University; the Albert Noyes Lecturer, Kansas State University; the Frontiers in Chemistry Research Lecturer, Texas A&M University; and the Sigma Xi National Lecturer from 1981 to 1983. Dr. Levy has also served as editor of the Journal of Chemical Physics since 1998. Bettie Sue Siler Masters, IOM, is the Robert A. Welch Foundation Distinguished Professor in Chemistry in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. She earned her B.S. in chemistry from Roanoke College and her Ph.D. in biochemistry from Duke University. Dr. Masters served as professor and chair of the Department of Biochemistry at the Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, and professor of biochemistry at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas. She is the recipient of the Bernard B. Brodie Award from the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental

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A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative Therapeutics and the Excellence in Science Award from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). She is a past member of the board of directors and former vice president for science policy of FASEB. Dr. Masters recently completed a 2-year term as president of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Her research focuses on the structure-function relationships of flavoproteins and heme proteins involved in the production of lipid mediators (fatty acid, prostaglandin, and arachidonic acid metabolites) by cytochromes P450 and of nitric oxide by three isoforms of nitric oxide synthase. Sonia E. Miller is an attorney admitted to practice in New York and the District of Columbia, before the Supreme Court of the United States, and before the U.S. District Courts of the Southern and Eastern Districts. Ms. Miller’s firm, S.E. Miller Law Firm, is dedicated to advising and consulting individuals, industry, government agencies, and nongovernmental organizations, as well as policy makers, educators, and the legal and judicial system in understanding and navigating through the cutting-edge legal, business, ethical, policy, legislative, and regulatory interrelated issues found within emerging and converging technologies such as nanotechnology and nanoscience, biotechnology and genetic engineering, information technology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and other related sciences and technologies. Additionally, Ms. Miller is involved in issues related to human-computer interaction and brain-machine interface. Ms. Miller is founder and global president of the Converging Technologies Bar Association; an adjunct professor in the Executive MBA Program at the Institute for Technology and Enterprise at Polytechnic University in Manhattan, creating and teaching the first university-level class on converging technologies (“Managing Converging Technologies: Integrating Bits, Atoms, Neurons, and Genes”); a columnist on converging technologies for the New York Law Journal; and a worldwide solicited speaker and author. She received an M.B.A. in international business and M.S.Ed. and B.Ed. degrees from the University of Miami, and a J.D. from New York Law School. Edward K. Moran is director of the Tri-State Product Innovation Practice of Deloitte & Touche’s Technology, Media & Telecommunications (TMT) group. He also heads up Deloitte’s Nanotech Industry Practice and is a leader of its Tri-State VC-backed company practice. Mr. Moran provides TMT clients with consultative assistance in securing financing, strategic planning, product innovation, market segmentation, competitive positioning, and industry analysis. As part of the product innovation process, he also assists TMT clients with the identification of strategic partners and consults on the management of these relationships. Mr. Moran is also executive director of the New York State NanoBusiness Alliance. Prior to joining Deloitte & Touche, he was managing partner of a Manhattan law firm, where he

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A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative served a number of technology and entertainment clients. He also cofounded a multi-disciplinary consultancy that targeted high-tech and entertainment companies and was a managing director of a Manhattan investment and advisory company that specializes in technology and media investments. Mr. Moran holds a law degree from New York Law School, has an M.B.A. in information systems and in management from New York University, and teaches corporate finance at New York University. He speaks widely on the topics of product innovation, business strategy, nanotechnology, technology transfer, and the financing of technology companies. David C. Mowery is the William A. and Betty H. Hasler Professor of New Enterprise Development at the Walter A. Haas School of Business at the University of California, Berkeley, a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research, and during the 2003-2004 academic year was the Bower Fellow at the Harvard Business School. He received his undergraduate and Ph.D. degrees in economics from Stanford University and was a postdoctoral fellow at the Harvard Business School. Dr. Mowery taught at Carnegie Mellon University, worked as a staff officer for the National Academies, and served in the Office of the United States Trade Representative as a Council on Foreign Relations’ International Affairs Fellow. He has been a member of a number of NRC committees, including those on the Competitive Status of the U.S. Civil Aviation Industry, on the Causes and Consequences of the Internationalization of U.S. Manufacturing, on the Federal Role in Civilian Technology Development, on U.S. Strategies for the Children’s Vaccine Initiative, on Applications of Biotechnology to Contraceptive Research and Development, and on New Approaches to Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis. His research deals with the economics of technological innovation and with the effects of public policies on innovation. He has testified before congressional committees and served as an adviser for the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, various federal agencies, and industrial firms. Dr. Mowery has published numerous academic papers and has written or edited a number of books, including Ivory Tower and Industrial Innovation: University-Industry Technology Transfer Before and After the Bayh-Dole Act; Paths of Innovation: Technological Change in 20th-Century America; The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industry Evolution and Structure; U.S. Industry in 2000; The Sources of Industrial Leadership; Science and Technology Policy in Interdependent Economies; Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth; Technology and Employment: Innovation and Growth in the U.S. Economy; The Impact of Technological Change on Employment and Economic Growth; Technology and the Wealth of Nations; and International Collaborative Ventures in U.S. Manufacturing. His academic awards include the Raymond Vernon Prize from the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Man-

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A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative agement, the Economic History Association’s Fritz Redlich Prize, the Business History Review’s Newcomen Prize, and the Cheit Outstanding Teaching Award. Kathleen M. Rest is executive director of the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS), where she manages the organization’s day-to-day affairs, supervising all program departments on issues ranging from climate change to global security. Dr. Rest is also leading UCS’s Climate Solutions Campaign. Dr. Rest came to UCS from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where she was the deputy director for programs. Throughout her tenure at NIOSH, she held several leadership positions, including serving as the Institute’s acting director at the time of September 11, 2001, and during the anthrax events that followed. Prior to her work with the federal government, Dr. Rest was an associate professor in the Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center and an adjunct associate professor at the University of Massachusetts School of Public Health. She has extensive experience as a researcher and advisor on occupational and environmental health issues in countries such as the Netherlands, Slovakia, Poland, Romania, Canada, and Greece. Dr. Rest was a founding member of the Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics, a national nonprofit organization committed to improving the practice of occupational and environmental health through information sharing and collaborative research. She also served as the chairperson of the National Advisory Committee on Occupational Safety and Health. Dr. Rest earned her doctorate in health policy from Boston University and her master’s degree in public administration, with a focus on health services, from the University of Arizona. Thomas A. Saponas was, until his retirement in 2003, the senior vice president and chief technology officer for Agilent Technologies, the $8 billion spin-off of Hewlett Packard Company established in 1999. He had been with Hewlett Packard and Agilent Technologies for 31 years, starting as a research and development engineer. As CTO, Mr. Saponas was responsible for establishing Agilent’s long-term technology strategy and directly supervised its central research lab. Prior to this, Mr. Saponas was vice president and general manager of the electronic instruments group at Hewlett Packard (HP), where he led eight divisions and five operations. Earlier, as a general manager, he was also responsible for HP’s worldwide research and development, marketing, and manufacturing of oscilloscopes, logic analyzers, and microprocessor development systems. He also had manufacturing responsibility for HP’s thin- and thick-film microcircuits. In 1986 Mr. Saponas was selected as a White House Fellow and served 1 year as special assistant to the Secretary of the

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A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative Navy. Mr. Saponas has a B.S. degree in computer science and electrical engineering and an M.S. degree in electrical engineering from the University of Colorado. R. Paul Schaudies is an assistant vice president and division manager of the biological and chemical defense division at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). He is a nationally recognized expert in the fields of biological and chemical warfare defense and has served on numerous national level advisory panels for the Defense Intelligence Agency, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, and the Department of Energy. He has 14 years’ bench research experience managing laboratories at Walter Reed, at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, and as a visiting scientist at the National Cancer Institute. He served for 13 years on active duty with the Army Medical Service Corps and separated from service at the rank of lieutenant colonel-select. Dr. Schaudies spent 4 years with the Defense Intelligence Agency as collections manager for biological and chemical defense technologies. As such, he initiated numerous intra-agency collaborations that resulted in accelerated product development in the area of biological warfare agent detection and identification. Dr. Schaudies has served on and chaired numerous technology review and advisory panels for U.S. government agencies. He received his bachelor’s degree in chemistry from Wake Forest University and his doctoral degree from Temple University School of Medicine in the department of biochemistry. He has authored 27 scientific manuscripts in the peer-reviewed literature, as well as three book chapters. Tsung-Tsan Su is the general director of the NanoTechnology Research Center of Taiwan’s Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI). She also served as the general director of the Office of Planning from August 15, 2000, to December 31, 2004. Before coming to ITRI headquarters, Dr. Su spent 23 years with ITRI’s Union Chemical Laboratories, where she held a variety of positions, progressing from her start as a researcher to her final role as deputy general director. She also served for 5 years as the executive director of the National Center for Cleaner Production, Taiwan. Dr. Su holds a B.S. in chemistry from National Tsing-Hua University in Taiwan, a Ph.D. from Princeton University, and a certificate from the international senior management program of Harvard University’s Graduate School of Business Administration. She is the recipient of numerous awards from ITRI, including awards for technology contribution, technology promotion and service, and performance, as well as awards for research papers and patents. Dr. Su has also received the Outstanding R&D Program Manager Award of Taiwan’s Ministry of Economic Affairs.

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A Matter of Size: Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative Thomas N. Theis is director of physical sciences with the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. He received a B.S. in physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1972 and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Brown University in 1974 and 1978, respectively. A portion of his Ph.D. research was done at the Technical University of Munich, where he completed a postdoctoral year before joining IBM Research in 1979. Dr. Theis joined the department of semiconductor science and technology at the IBM Watson Research Center to model the electronic properties of two-dimensional systems. In 1993 he was named senior manager of silicon science and technology, where he was responsible for exploratory materials and process integration work bridging between research and the IBM microelectronics division. He assumed his current position as director of physical sciences in February 1998. Dr. Theis is a member of the Nanotechnology Technical Advisory Group of the President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and serves on the National Advisory Board for the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network (NNIN). Dr. Theis also serves on the advisory board for the American Institute of Physics Corporate Associates. He is a member of the Physics Policy Committee of the American Physical Society and a member of the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council. He is also a member of the IEEE and a fellow of the American Physical Society. He has authored or co-authored over 60 scientific and technical publications.

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