University of Washington. Dr. Williams received a Ph.D. from the University of Washington in 1968.

Cherry A. Murray, Vice Chair, NAS, NAE, is the Deputy Director for Science and Technology (DDST) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Murray is a physicist who has been nationally recognized for her work in surface physics, light scattering, and complex fluids. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. As the DDST, Murray leads and oversees the laboratory’s multidisciplinary science and technology activities, including the laboratory’s $110 million institutional research and development program. Murray, formerly senior vice president for Physical Sciences and Wireless Research at Bell Labs Lucent Technologies, first joined Bell Labs in 1978 and held a number of Bell Lab research and management positions. In 2000, Murray became vice president for Physical Sciences and then senior vice president in 2001. In this role, Murray managed the wireless, nanotechnology, and physical research laboratories and was chair of the New Jersey Nanotechnology Consortium. Murray received her B.S. and Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She serves on the governing boards of the National Research Council and Argonne National Laboratory. She is the recipient of numerous awards, and Discover Magazine named her one of the “50 Most Important Women in Science” in 2002.

A. Michael Andrews II is vice president and chief technology officer at L-3 Communications, reporting to the chairman and chief executive officer. He guides the company’s long-term R&D initiatives, provides input on new solutions to DOD requirements, and continually evaluates the evolving technologies used in L-3 products. Before that, he served as deputy assistant secretary of research and technology and chief scientist for the United States Army, a position he held since 1998. Dr. Andrews’ effective work with senior staff principals, scientists, and engineers from the Army, DOD, and industry significantly enhanced the Army’s efforts to develop the Future Combat Systems, Objective Force, and Force Transformation. Prior to joining the Army in 1997, Dr. Andrews held a variety of corporate engineering leadership and system development positions at Rockwell International. He began his career at Rockwell in 1971, working on electro-optic and infrared research and development products. An author of over 50 technical articles, Dr. Andrews holds several patents in infrared sensors, materials, and signal processors. He is a recipient of various honors, including the Presidential Rank Award, the Meritorious Civilian Service Award, Rockwell’s Engineer of the Year Award, and the University of Illinois Distinguished Alumnus Award and is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Dr. Andrews received his

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