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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report is based on work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CTS-0436444. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10223-5

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10223-0

Cover: Clockwise from top right:

  • “Flower Bouquet,” a three-dimensional nanostructure grown by controlled nucleation of silicon carbide nanowires on gallium catalyst particles. © Ghim Wei Ho and Mark Welland, University of Cambridge. Reprinted with permission.

  • Scanning electron microscopy image of chemical vapor deposition synthesis of carbon nanotubes. Courtesy of NASA.

  • Array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes grown using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, which is then intercalated with copper to create a composite exhibiting good thermal properties applicable for chip cooling. Courtesy of NASA.

  • Scanning electron microscopy image of hexagonal zinc oxide nanocrystallites. Courtesy of the National Science Foundation and Yicheng Lu, Sriram Muthukumar, and Nuri Emanetoglu, Rutgers University.

  • Scanning electron microscopy image of zinc oxide nanowires grown on silicon in which the average width of the rods is 40 to 50 nanometers. Courtesy of the National Science Foundation and Yicheng Lu, Sriram Muthukumar, and Nuri Emanetoglu, Rutgers University.

  • “Nano Rings” grown by varying the conditions of chemical vapor deposition synthesis of silicon composite nanostructures. © Ghim Wei Ho and Mark Welland, University of Cambridge. Reprinted with permission.

  • “Transport XI,” part of a series on electron transport in semiconductors, shows electrons that are launched over a very small range of initial angles, represented by the narrow “stems.” Small initial differences in angle grow quickly, as evidenced by the fanning out and branching of electron paths. © Eric J. Heller, Harvard University. Reprinted with permission.

  • Scanning electron microscopy image of an array of carbon nanotubes grown by chemical vapor deposition. Courtesy of NASA.

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Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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