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Gersonde, R., X. Crosta, A. Abelmann, and L. Armand. 2005. Sea-surface temperature and sea ice distribution of the Southern Ocean at the EPILOG Last Glacial Maximum—A circum-Antarctic view based on siliceous microfossil records. Quaternary Science Reviews 24:869-896.

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Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs References ABS (American Bureau of Shipping). 2005. Demand for ice-class tankers has been steadily rising as oil export from Russians Arctic regions becomes ever more attractive. Surveyor Summer issue. ACIA. 2005. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press. Alexander, V. 1992. Arctic marine ecosystems. Pp. 221-232 in Global Warming and Biological Diversity, R. L. Peters and T. E. Lovejoy, eds. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. AMSA (Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment of the Arctic Council). 2005. ARCOP Final Workshop, Helsinki Finland, November 16-17. Antarctic Treaty, 1959. Available at http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/About_Antarctica/Treaty/treaty.html. Arctic Marine Transport Workshop, 2004. Available at http://www.arctic.gov/files/AMTW_book.pdf#search=%22Arctic%20Marine%20workshop%22. Arzel, O., T. Fichefet, and H. Goosse. 2006. Sea ice evolution over the 20th and 21st centuries as simulated by current AOGCMs. Ocean Modelling 12:401-415. Auld, A. 2006. Military could arm coast guard ships for Arctic sovereignty mission. Canadian Press March 22, 2006. Available at http://www.canada.com/cityguides/halifax/info/story.html?id=94787053-ae11-4357-9adb-d640ff45dafc&k=874 Barrie, L. A., D. Gregor, B. Hargrave, R. Lake, D. Muir, R. Shearer, B. Tracey, and T. Bidleman. 1992. Arctic contaminants: Sources, occurrence and pathways. Science of the Total Environment 122(1-2):1-74. BIMCO (Baltic and International Maritime Council). 2005. The Baltic and International Maritime Council Ice Handbook. Bagsværd, Denmark: BIMCO. Booz Allen Hamilton. 2005. Polar Ice Operations Mission Analysis Report. McLean, VA: Booz Allen Hamilton. Bottenheim, J. W., A. G. Gallant, and K. A. Brice. 1986. Measurements of NOy Species and O3 at 82 Degrees N Latitude. Geophysical Research Letters 13, (2):113-116. Brodeur, R. D., C. E. Mills, J. E. Overland, G. E. Walters, and J. D. Schumacher. 1999. Evidence for a substantial increase in gelatinous zooplankton in the Bering Sea, with possible links to climate change. Fisheries Oceanography 8:296-306. Brunt, K. M., O. Sergienko, and D. R. Macayeal. 2006. Observations of unusual fast-ice conditions in the Southwest Ross Sea, Antarctica: Preliminary analysis of iceberg and storminess effects. Annals of Glaciology 44. Carmack, E. C., R. W. Macdonald, R. G. Perkin, F. A. Mclaughlin, and R. J. Pearson. 1995. Evidence for warming of Atlantic water in the southern Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean: Results from the Larsen-93 expedition. Geophysical Research Letters 22:1061-1064. Cavalieri, D. J., C. L. Parkinson, and K. Y. Vinnikov. 2003. 30-year satellite record reveals contrasting Arctic and Antarctic decadal sea ice variability. Geophysical Research Letters 30:CRY4-1-4-4. Comiso, J. C. 2002. A rapidly declining perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic. Geophysical Research Letters 29:17-11. Comiso, J. C. 2003. Large-scale characteristics and variability of the global sea ice cover. Pp. 112-142 in Sea Ice - An Introduction to Its Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology, D. N. Thomas and G. S. Dieckmann, eds. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science. Crocker, G. B. 1988. Physical Processes in Antarctic Landfast Sea Ice. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University. Eicken, H. 2003. From the microscopic to the macroscopic to the regional scale: Growth, microstructure and properties of sea ice. Pp. 22-81 in Sea Ice—An Introduction to Its Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology, D. N. Thomas and G. S. Dieckmann, eds. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science. Francis, J. A., E. Hunter, J. R. Key, and X. Wang. 2005. Clues to variability in Arctic minimum sea ice extent. Geophysical Research Letters 32: 1-4. Frank, S. 2000. The Northern Sea Route: Asia—Europe—Asia. Four questions for Sergey Frank, Minister of Transportation of the Russian Federation. New East International Magazine 3/4. Available at http://segodnya.spb.rus.net/3-4-00/eng/004_e.htm. Gardner, J. V., L. A. Mayer, and A. Armstrong. 2006. Mapping submission to U.N. Law of the Sea. Eos Transactions, American Geophysical Union 86 (17):157-160. Garfield, G. 2005. Shtokman LNG project could spawn a batch of new ice-class gas carriers. TradeWinds October 28. Garfield, G. and A. Corbett, 2005. Ice Class. TradeWinds October 28. George, J. C., H. P. Huntington, K. Brewster, H. Eicken, D. W. Norton, and R. Glenn. 2004. Observations on shorefast ice dynamics in Arctic Alaska and the responses of the Inupiat hunting community. Arctic 57:363-374. Gersonde, R., X. Crosta, A. Abelmann, and L. Armand. 2005. Sea-surface temperature and sea ice distribution of the Southern Ocean at the EPILOG Last Glacial Maximum—A circum-Antarctic view based on siliceous microfossil records. Quaternary Science Reviews 24:869-896. Grebmeier, J. M., and K. H. Dunton (2000). Benthic processes in the northern Bering/Chukchi Seas: Status and global change. Pp. 80-93 in Impacts of Changes in Sea Ice and Other Environmental Parameters in the Arctic, H. P. Huntington, ed. Marine Mammal Commission Workshop, Girdwood, Alaska, February 15-17, 2000.

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