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Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs References ABS (American Bureau of Shipping). 2005. Demand for ice-class tankers has been steadily rising as oil export from Russians Arctic regions becomes ever more attractive. Surveyor Summer issue. ACIA. 2005. Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press. Alexander, V. 1992. Arctic marine ecosystems. Pp. 221-232 in Global Warming and Biological Diversity, R. L. Peters and T. E. Lovejoy, eds. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. AMSA (Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment of the Arctic Council). 2005. ARCOP Final Workshop, Helsinki Finland, November 16-17. Antarctic Treaty, 1959. Available at http://www.antarctica.ac.uk/About_Antarctica/Treaty/treaty.html. Arctic Marine Transport Workshop, 2004. Available at http://www.arctic.gov/files/AMTW_book.pdf#search=%22Arctic%20Marine%20workshop%22. Arzel, O., T. Fichefet, and H. Goosse. 2006. 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Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs Grebmeier, J. M., et al. 2006. A major ecosystem shift in the northern Bering Sea. Science 311:1461-1464. Haas, C. 2003. Dynamics vs. Thermodynamics: The sea ice thickness distribution. Pp. 82-111 in Sea Ice - An Introduction to Its Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Geology, D. N. Thomas and G. S. Dieckmann, eds. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science. Haas, C. 2004. Late-summer sea ice thickness variability in the Arctic Transpolar Drift 1991-2001 derived from ground-based electromagnetic sounding. Geophysical Research Letters 31(L09402):09401-09405. Hamilton, A. 1787. Federalist No. 12: The Utility of the Union in Respect to Revenue. Pp. 94-95 in The Federalist Papers, A. Hamilton, J. Madison, and J. Jay, authors. New York: Mentor-Penguin Books, 1961. Hana, J. 2006. Climate changes increases icebreaker’s role. Navy Times, January 30. Holland, M. M., and C. M. Bitz. 2003. Polar amplification of climate change in coupled models. 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