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Polar Icebreakers in a Changing World: An Assessment of U.S. Needs
Scientific Delegation to Svalbard for Shared Norwegian-U.S. Scientific Collaborations and Logistical Platforms in 1999. Dr. Brigham-Grette is currently chair of the International Geosphere/Biosphere Program’s Science Steering Committee on Past Global Change (PAGES) with an international program office in Bern, Switzerland, and president of the American Quaternary Association. She also serves as one of two U.S. representatives to the International Continental Drilling Program.
Rita R. Colwell received her Ph.D. in oceanography from the University of Washington. Dr. Colwell is the chair of Canon U.S. Life Sciences, Inc., and distinguished university professor at the University of Maryland, College Park, and at the Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Colwell was the first woman to be named director of the National Science Foundation (NSF), where she served with distinction from 1998 to 2004. In her capacity as NSF Director, she served as cochair of the Committee on Science of the National Science and Technology Council. Dr. Colwell has held many advisory positions in the U.S. government, nonprofit science policy organizations, and private foundations, as well as in the international scientific research community; she is a member of the American Philosophical Society, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and National Academy of Sciences.
Hajo Eicken is associate professor at the Geophysical Institute and the Department of Geology and Geophysics at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Before joining the University of Alaska, Dr. Eicken was a senior scientist at the Alfred Wegener Institute where he was the head of a research group for sea-ice physics and remote sensing. He received his Ph.D. in geophysics at the University of Bremen. Dr. Eicken’s research interests include studies of the growth, evolution, and properties of sea ice in the Arctic and the Antarctic. He is particularly interested in determining how microscopic and macroscopic properties affect larger-scale sea-ice processes and their role in the climate system. Dr. Eicken has participated in several icebreaker expeditions in both hemispheres. He is serving on a number of national and international scientific and technical committees.
Jeffrey M. Garrett has been a maritime affairs consultant since retiring from the U.S. Coast Guard in 2005 after 31 years of service. Graduating from the U.S. Coast Guard Academy in 1974, he served multiple assignments in the polar icebreaker fleet, in the commissioning crew of POLAR STAR, aboard the Wind class icebreaker BURTON ISLAND, again in POLAR STAR as executive officer, as commanding officer of POLAR SEA, and as commissioning commanding officer of HEALY during delivery, shakedown operations, and ice trials. These shipboard assignments included multiple deployments to the Arctic and Antarctic in support of research, defense, and other national interests. He had additional operational duty at the Vessel Traffic Service in Prince William Sound, Alaska; commanding officer of MOBILE BAY in the Great Lakes; and as executive officer of ACTIVE. Staff experience included multiple headquarters assignments in ice operations and programming and budgeting, and chief of operations in the Pacific Area staff. As director of resources at headquarters he was responsible for the Coast Guard’s budget, long-range planning, and policy development. He holds a master of science in management degree from the Naval Postgraduate School and was a research fellow while attending the Industrial College of the Armed Services. His last assignment was as commander, 13th Coast Guard District, overseeing all Coast Guard activities in the Pacific Northwest.
Jacqueline M. Grebmeier is a research professor and project director at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. Her research interests include pelagic-benthic coupling, benthic carbon cycling, and benthic faunal population structure in the marine environment; understanding how water column processes influence biological productivity in Arctic waters and sediments; understanding how materials are exchanged between the seabed and overlying waters; and documenting longer-term trends in ecosystem health of Arctic continental shelves. Some of her research includes analyses of the importance of benthic organisms to higher levels of the Arctic food web, including walruses, gray whales, and diving sea ducks, and studies of radionuclide distributions of sediments and within the water column in the Arctic as a whole. Over the last 20 years she has participated in 33 oceanographic expeditions on both U.S. and foreign vessels, with more than 500 days on icebreakers alone. She is a member of the Polar Research Board, served previously as a member of the U.S. Arctic Research Commission, and has contributed to coordinated international and national science planning efforts such as the International Polar Year and Shelf-Basin Interactions project. Dr. Grebmeier earned her Ph.D. in biological oceanography in 1987 from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.
Mahlon C. Kennicutt II is the director of sustainable development and team leader for the Sustainable Coastal Margins Program, Office of the Vice President for Research, at Texas A&M University. Dr. Kennicutt earned his Ph.D. in oceanography in 1980 from Texas A&M University. Dr. Kennicutt has worked as an oceanographer for 25 years, spent more than 500 days at sea, including on various ships in Antarctica, and is familiar with the logistics operations at McMurdo Station as well as University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) ship operations. In addition, Dr. Kennicutt is a vice president of the Scientific Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council for Science (ICSU), an international committee that serves as the formal science advisor to the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Parties. In this role he is familiar