The Present Fleet of U.S. Icebreakers,

 

56

   

 The Current World Fleet of Polar Icebreakers,

 

57

   

 Icebreaker Technology,

 

58

   

 Icebreakers Under Construction,

 

62

   

 U.S. Polar Icebreaker Operations in the Last Twenty Years,

 

62

7

 

ICEBREAKING ENVIRONMENTS AND CHALLENGES TO THE U.S. FLEET

 

65

   

 Operating Environments,

 

65

   

 Potential Challenges to the U.S. Fleet,

 

71

8

 

ANALYSIS OF ALTERNATIVES FOR USAP RESUPPLY

 

75

   

 Current Logistics Support in Antarctica,

 

75

   

 Alternatives for Antarctic Resupply,

 

75

9

 

ANALYSIS OF U.S. CURRENT AND FUTURE POLAR ICEBREAKING NEEDS

 

79

   

 Needs Analysis,

 

79

   

 Gap Analysis,

 

81

10

 

OPTIONS FOR ACQUIRING NEW POLAR ICEBREAKING SERVICES

 

83

   

 Options for Meeting Gaps in U.S. Polar Icebreaking Capabilities,

 

83

   

 Ship Renewal and Transition Schedule,

 

87

   

 Options for Polar Icebreaking Crewing,

 

88

11

 

FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

 

95

   

 Icebreaking Needs in the Arctic,

 

95

   

 Icebreaking Needs in the Antarctic,

 

96

   

 Support of U.S. Polar Research,

 

97

   

 Renewal of the Nation’s Polar Icebreaking Fleet,

 

98

   

 Transition to a new Polar Icebreaking Fleet,

 

100

   

 Managing the Nation’s Polar Icebreaking Fleet,

 

101

   

 Clarification of National Policy,

 

102

 

 

REFERENCES

 

103

 

 

APPENDIXES

 

 

A

 

STATEMENT OF TASK

 

107

B

 

SUMMARY FROM INTERIM REPORT

 

109

C

 

U.S. COAST GUARD POLAR ICEBREAKING AUTHORITY AND POLICY

 

113

D

 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF COMMITTEE MEMBERS

 

117

E

 

ACRONYMS

 

121



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