Glossary

8.5-square-mile area—The 8.5-square-mile area (SMA) is a low-lying, partially developed area near the northeast corner of Everglades National Park, west of the L-31 North canal. Flood protection was to have been provided under the original 1989 Mod Waters legislation, but years of subsequent study and negotiations with property owners resulted in a compromise in which a flood protection levee is to be built around approximately two-thirds of the 8.5 SMA while providing for purchase of approximately one-third of the private property and 12 homes in the western portion.

Acceler8—An expedited course of action for achieving Everglades restoration. Through Accler8, the state of Florida intends to implement 11 components of the CERP and 3 additional non-CERP components.

Across Trophic Level System Simulation (ATLSS)—A modeling system that uses topographic data to convert the 2 × 2 mile landscape of the regional hydrological models to a 500 × 500 m landscape to which various ecological models are applied. These range from highly parameterized, mechanistic individual-based models (e.g., EVERKITE, SIMSPAR) to simpler, habitatsuitability models (Spatially-Explicit Species Index, SESI; and Habitat Suitability Index, HSI). The objectives of the ATLSS project are to utilize the outputs of systems models to drive a variety of models that attempt to compare and contrast the relative impacts of alternative hydrologic scenarios on the biotic components of South Florida.

Active adaptive management—Adaptive management is designed to generate information that can be used to improve the planning and operation of projects. Active adaptive management begins with an analysis of the most serious gaps in understanding about the system and examines or develops several plausible explanations or models of the system’s response



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Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The First Biennial Review – 2006 Glossary 8.5-square-mile area—The 8.5-square-mile area (SMA) is a low-lying, partially developed area near the northeast corner of Everglades National Park, west of the L-31 North canal. Flood protection was to have been provided under the original 1989 Mod Waters legislation, but years of subsequent study and negotiations with property owners resulted in a compromise in which a flood protection levee is to be built around approximately two-thirds of the 8.5 SMA while providing for purchase of approximately one-third of the private property and 12 homes in the western portion. Acceler8—An expedited course of action for achieving Everglades restoration. Through Accler8, the state of Florida intends to implement 11 components of the CERP and 3 additional non-CERP components. Across Trophic Level System Simulation (ATLSS)—A modeling system that uses topographic data to convert the 2 × 2 mile landscape of the regional hydrological models to a 500 × 500 m landscape to which various ecological models are applied. These range from highly parameterized, mechanistic individual-based models (e.g., EVERKITE, SIMSPAR) to simpler, habitatsuitability models (Spatially-Explicit Species Index, SESI; and Habitat Suitability Index, HSI). The objectives of the ATLSS project are to utilize the outputs of systems models to drive a variety of models that attempt to compare and contrast the relative impacts of alternative hydrologic scenarios on the biotic components of South Florida. Active adaptive management—Adaptive management is designed to generate information that can be used to improve the planning and operation of projects. Active adaptive management begins with an analysis of the most serious gaps in understanding about the system and examines or develops several plausible explanations or models of the system’s response

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Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The First Biennial Review – 2006 to management actions. Practitioners then design and conduct experiments to remove the maximum possible amount of uncertainty about the system response. Experimental results are used to revise the models and better predict the outcomes of management options. New experiments are designed and performed if needed. Active adaptive management is based on the assumption that early investment in knowledge generation will reduce the likelihood of making inappropriate and potentially damaging management decisions. Adaptive management (AM)—The application of scientific information and explicit feedback mechanisms to refine and improve future management decisions. Airborne Height Finder (AHF)—A helicopter-based instrument developed by the U.S. Geological Survey that uses global positioning system technology and a high-tech version of the surveyor’s plumb bob to measure terrain surface elevation above and under water. The AHF system distinguishes itself from remote-sensing technologies in its ability to physically penetrate vegetation and murky water, providing measurement of the underlying topographic surface. Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR)—A technology for storage of water in a suitable aquifer when excess water is available and recovery from the same aquifer when the water is needed to meet peak emergency or long-term water demands. Wells are used to pump water in and out of the aquifer. Best management practices (BMPs)—Effective, practical methods that prevent or reduce the movement of sediment, nutrients, pesticides, and other pollutants resulting from agricultural, industrial, or other societal activities from the land to surface or groundwater or that optimize water use. Central and Southern Florida (C&SF) Project for Flood Control and Other Purposes—A multipurpose project, first authorized by Congress in 1948 to provide flood control, water supply protection, water quality protection, and natural resource protection. Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP)—The plan for the restoration of the greater Everglades ecosystem authorized by Congress in 2000.

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Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The First Biennial Review – 2006 Conceptual ecological models—Nonquantitative planning tools that identify the major anthropogenic drivers and stressors on natural systems, the ecological effects of these stressors, and the biological attributes or indicators of these ecological responses. Critical Projects—Projects determined to be critical to the restoration of the South Florida ecosystem that were authorized in 1996 prior to the CERP. These projects are comparatively small and were undertaken by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and South Florida Water Management District. They are being implemented along with the CERP projects. Decomp—Short title for Water Conservation Area 3 Decompartmentalization and Sheet Flow Enhancement—Part 1 project. Digital Elevation Model (DEM)—DEM data are arrays of regularly spaced elevation values referenced horizontally either to a Universal Transverse Mercator projection or to a geographic coordinate system. The grid cells are spaced at regular intervals along south to north profiles that are ordered from west to east. DEMs are derived from hypsographic data (contour lines) and/or photogrammetric methods using USGS 7.5-minute, 15-minute, 2-arc-second (30- by 60-minute), and 1-degree (1:250,000-scale) topographic quadrangle maps. Dynamic Model for Stormwater Treatment Area (DMSTA)—Model that simulates dynamics of hydrology and phosphorus, predicts changes in water quality, and is used for the design of STAs for the restoration and protection of the Everglades. Empirical model—A simplified representation of a system or phenomenon that is based on experience or experimentation. Estuary—The portion of the Earth’s coastal zone where sea water, fresh water, land, and atmosphere interact. Everglades—The present areas of sawgrass, marl prairie, and other wetlands south of Lake Okeechobee. Also called the Everglades ecosystem or the remnant Everglades ecosystem. Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA)—Land in the northern Everglades south of Lake Okeechobee that was drained for agricultural use.

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Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The First Biennial Review – 2006 Everglades Construction Project—Twelve interrelated construction projects located between Lake Okeechobee and the Everglades. Six stormwater treatment areas (STAs, constructed wetlands) totaling over 44,000 acres are the cornerstone of the project. The STAs rely on physical and biological processes to reduce the level of total phosphorous entering the Everglades to an interim goal of 50 parts per billion. Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN)—A USGS surface-water hydrological monitoring network in support of the MAP that is intended to provide the hydrologic data necessary to integrate hydrologic and biological responses to the CERP during MAP performance measurement assessment and evaluation for the Greater Everglades module. Everglades Landscape Model (ELM)—Model used to predict the landscape response to different water management scenarios. ELM consists of a set of integrated modules to understand ecosystem dynamics at a regional scale and simulates the biogeochemical processes associated with hydrology, nutrients, soil formation, and vegetation succession. Its main components include hydrology, water quality, soils, periphyton, and vegetation. Everglades National Park Protection and Expansion Act (1989)—Federal legislation that added approximately 107,000 acres of land to Everglades National Park and authorized restoration of more natural water flows to northeast Shark River Slough through construction of the Modified Water Deliveries Project. Everglades Protection Area—As defined in the Everglades Forever Act, the Everglades Protection Area is comprised of Water Conservation Areas 1 (also known as the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge), 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B; and the Everglades National Park. Everglades watershed—The drainage that encompasses the Everglades ecosystem but also includes the Kissimmee River watershed and other smaller watersheds north of Lake Okeechobee that utimately supply water to the Everglades ecosystem. Exotic species—An introduced species not native to the place where it is found. Extirpated species—A species that has become extinct in a given area.

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Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The First Biennial Review – 2006 Flow—The volume of water passing a given point per unit of time, including in-stream flow requirements, minimum flow, and peak flow. “Flow” is used generically within the text to mean the movement of volumes of water across the landscape and incorporates the concepts of volumetric flow rate (e.g., cubic feet per second), velocity, and direction. Volumetric flow rate may be estimated for large averaging times, such as acre-feet per year, as in the South Florida Water Management Model and the Natural Systems Model, and also on a short-term (“instantaneous”) basis by other models, as discussed in Chapter 4. Flux—The rate of transfer of fluid, particles, or energy across a given surface. Foundation projects—Non-CERP activities. Geographic information system (GIS)—A map-based data storage and retrieval system. Guidance memoranda—In accordance with the programmatic regulations, six program-wide guidance memoranda have been drafted that establish additional procedures to achieve the goals and purposes of the CERP. The subjects for the guidance memoranda include project implementation reports, Savings Clause requirements, identifying water needed to achieve the benefits of the plan, operating manuals, and assessment activities for adaptive management. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI)—Tool used to define, in relative terms, the quality of the habitat for various plant and animal species. HSIs can be used as the first approximation toward quantifying the relationships identified in various conceptual ecological models. Hydroperiod—Annual temporal pattern of water levels. Interim goal—A means by which the restoration success of the Plan may be evaluated throughout the implementation process. Interim target—A means by which the success of the Plan in providing for water-related needs of the region, including water supply and flood protection, may be evaluated throughout the implementation process.

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Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The First Biennial Review – 2006 Invasive species—Species of plants or animals, both native and exotic, that aggressively invade habitats and cause multiple ecological changes. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)—A technology that employs an airborne scanning laser rangefinder to produce detailed and accurate topographic surveys. Marl—A type of wetland soil high in clay and carbonates. Hydroperiod is a critical determinant of marl formation. Master Implementation Sequencing Plan (MISP)—Specifies the sequence in which CERP projects are planned, designed, and constructed. MIKE SHE/MIKE 11—A physically based, spatially distributed, finite-difference, integrated surface-water and groundwater model. It can simulate the entire land phase of the hydrologic cycle and evaluate surface-water impact from groundwater withdrawal. MODBRANCH—A hydrologic model that combines a widely used groundwater model (MODFLOW) with a one-dimensional model for canals and structures (BRANCH). Natural system—According to WRDA 2000, all land and water managed by the federal government or the state within the South Florida ecosystem, including water conservation areas, sovereign submerged land, Everglades National Park, Biscayne National Park, Big Cypress National Preserve, other federal or state (including a political subdivision of a state) land that is designated and managed for conservation purposes, and any tribal land that is designated and managed for conservation purposes, as approved by the tribe. Natural System Model (NSM)—Model that simulates hydropatterns before canals, levees, dikes, and pumps were built. The NSM mimics frequency, duration, depth, and spatial extent of water inundation under pre-management (i.e., natural) hydrologic conditions. In many cases, those pre-management water levels are used as a target for hydrologic restoration assuming that restoration of the hydrologic response that existed prior to drainage of the system would lead to restoration of natural habitats and biota.

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Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The First Biennial Review – 2006 Original Everglades—The pre-drainage Everglades, or that which existed prior to the construction of drainage canals beginning in the late 1800s. Parts per billion (ppb)—A measure of concentration equivalent to microgram of solute per liter of solution. Parts per million (ppm)—A measure of concentration equivalent to milligram of solute per liter of solution. Passive adaptive management—Adaptive management by which a preferred course of action is selected based on existing information and understanding. Outcomes are monitored and evaluated and subsequent decisions (e.g., adjustments in design or operations, the design of subsequent projects, etc.) are adjusted based on improved understanding. Performance measure—A quantifiable indicator of ecosystem response to changes in environmental conditions. Periphyton—A biological community of algae, bacteria, fungi, protists, and other microorganisms. In the Everglades, periphyton grows on top of the soil surface, attached to the stems of rooted vegetation, and in the water column or at the water surface, sometimes in association with other floating vegetation. Programmatic Regulations—Procedural framework and specific requirements called for in section 601(h)(3) of WRDA 2000. The programmatic regulations are intended to guide implementation of the CERP and to ensure that the goals and purposes of the CERP are achieved. The final rule for the Programmatic Regulations (33 CFR §385) was issued in November 2003. Project Delivery Team (PDT)—An interdisciplinary group that includes representatives from the implementing agencies. PDTs develop the products necessary to deliver the project. Project Implementation Report (PIR)—A decision document that bridges the gap between the conceptual design contained in the Comprehensive Plan and the detailed design necessary to proceed to construction. Project management plan (PMP)—A document that establishes the project’s scope, schedule, costs, funding requirements, and technical performance

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Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The First Biennial Review – 2006 requirements (including the various functional area’s performance and quality criteria) and that will be used to produce and deliver the products that comprise the project. RECOVER—The Restoration Coordination and Verification Program (RECOVER) is an arm of the CERP responsible for linking science and the tools of science to a set of systemwide planning, evaluation, and assessment tasks. RECOVER’s objectives are to evaluate and assess CERP performance; refine and improve the CERP during the implementation period; and ensure that a system-wide perspective is maintained throughout the restoration program. RECOVER conducts scientific and technical evaluations and assessments for improving CERP’s ability to restore, preserve, and protect the South Florida ecosystem while providing for the region’s other water-related needs. RECOVER communicates and coordinates the results of these evaluations and assessments. Ridge—Elevated areas of sawgrass habitat that rise above the foot-and-a-half deeper sloughs. A ridge may be submerged or above the water surface. Savings Clause—Provision of WRDA 2000 that is designed to ensure that an existing legal source of water (e.g., agricultural or urban water supply, water supply for Everglades National Park, water supply for fish and wildlife) is not eliminated or transferred until a replacement source of water of comparable quantity and quality, as was available on the date of enactment of WRDA 2000, is available and that existing levels of flood protection are not reduced. Sawgrass plain—An unbroken expanse of dense, tall (up to 10 feet) sawgrass that originally covered most of the northern Everglades. Most of the sawgrass plain area has been replaced by agricultural crops, mainly sugar cane, but some tall sawgrass remains in the Water Conservation Areas. Science Coordination Group (SCG)—The SCG supports the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force in its efforts to coordinate the scientific aspects of restoration of the South Florida ecosystem. The SCG is primarily tasked with continually documenting and supporting the programmatic-level science and other research through updates and implementation of the Task Force’s Plan for Coordinating Science. The SCG includes both senior managers and scientists appointed by the Task Force.

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Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The First Biennial Review – 2006 Sheet flow—Water movement as a broad front with shallow, uniform depth. Slough—A depression associated with swamps and marshlands as part of a bayou, inlet, or backwater; contains areas of slightly deeper water and a slow current; can be thought of as the broad, shallow rivers of the Everglades. South Florida ecosystem—An area consisting of the lands and waters within the boundary of the South Florida Water Management District, including the built environment, the Everglades, the Florida Keys, and the contiguous near-shore coastal waters of South Florida (also known as Greater Everglades ecosystem). South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force (SFERTF or Task Force)— The Task Force was established by the WRDA of 1996 to coordinate policies, programs, and science activities among the many restoration partners in South Florida. Its 14 members include the secretaries of Interior (chair), Commerce, Army, Agriculture, and Transportation; the Attorney General; and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency; or their designees. One member each is appointed by the Secretary of the Interior from the Seminole Tribe of Florida and the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida. The Secretary of the Interior also appoints, based on recommendations of the governor of Florida, two representatives of the state of Florida, one representative of the SFWMD, and two representatives of local Florida governments. South Florida Regional Simulation Model (SFRSM)—A finite-volume-based model capable of simulating multidimensional and fully integrated groundwater and surface-water flow. This model is intended to eventually replace the SFWMM. South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM)—A model that simulates hydrology and water systems (widely accepted as the best available tool for analyzing structural and/or operational changes to the complex water management system in South Florida at the regional scale). Southern Inland and Coastal Systems numerical model (SICS)—Numerical model that simulates hydrologic conditions for the Taylor Slough area.

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Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The First Biennial Review – 2006 Spatially Explicit Species Index (SESI)—A set of models designed to assess the relative potential for breeding and/or foraging success of modeled species across the greater Everglades landscape under various proposed hydrologic scenarios. Stormwater Treatment Area (STA)—A human constructed wetland area to treat urban and agricultural runoff water before it is discharged to the natural areas. Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV)—Plants that grow completely below the water surface. Tides and Inflows in the Mangrove Ecotone (TIME) model—Numerical model being developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate the interaction of overland sheet flow and dynamic tidal forces, including flow exchanges and salinity fluxes between the surface- and groundwater systems, in and along the mangrove-dominated transition zone between the Everglades wetlands and adjacent coastal-marine ecosystems in south Florida. The TIME model domain has an eastern boundary at the L-31N, L-31W, and C-111 canals; a southern boundary across northern Florida Bay from Key Largo to Cape Sable; a western boundary along the Gulf coast from Cape Sable to Everglades City; and a northern boundary along Tamiami Trail. TIME has a spatial scale of 500 × 500 m. Total phosphorus (TP)—Sum of phosphorus in dissolved and particulate forms. Tree island—Patch of forest in the Everglades marsh occurring in the central peatlands and the peripheral marl prairies of the southern and southeastern Everglades; on higher ground than ridges; sizes range from as small as one-hundredth of an acre to hundreds of acres. WAMVIEW—A GIS-based watershed hydrology/water quality model developed to allow engineers and planners to assess the water quality of both surface and groundwater based on land use, soils, climate, and other factors. Water Conservation Areas (WCAs)—Everglades marshland areas that were modified for use as storage to prevent flooding, to irrigate agriculture land and recharge well fields, to supply water for Everglades National Park, and

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Progress Toward Restoring the Everglades: The First Biennial Review – 2006 for general water conservation. The Water Conservation Areas WCA-1, WCA-2A, WCA-2B, WCA-3A, and WCA-3B comprise five surface-water management basins in the Everglades; bounded by the Everglades Agricultural Area on the north and the Everglades National Park basin on the south, the WCAs are confined by levees and water control structures that regulate the inflows and outflows to each one of them. Restoration of more natural water levels and flows to the WCAs is a main objective of the CERP. Water Reservations—According to WRDA 2000, the state shall, under state law, make sufficient reservations of water provided by each CERP project for the natural system in accordance with the Project Implementation Report for that project and consistent with the Plan before water made available by a project is permitted for a consumptive use or otherwise made unavailable. Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 2000—Legislation that authorized the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan as a framework for modifying the Central and Southern Florida Project to increase future water supplies, with the appropriate quality, timing, and distribution, for environmental purposes so as to achieve a restored Everglades natural system as much as possible, while at the same time meeting other water-related needs of the ecosystem. Water year—Time convention used as a basis for processing stream flow and other hydrologic data. In the Northern Hemisphere, the water year begins October 1 and ends September 30; in the Southern Hemisphere, it begins July 1 and ends June 30. The water year is designated by the calendar year in which it ends. Wetlands—Areas that are inundated or saturated by surface water or groundwater at a frequency and duration sufficient to support a prevalence of vegetative or aquatic life that requires saturated or seasonally saturated soil conditions for growth and reproduction. Yellow Book—Common name for the Central and Southern Florida Comprehensive Review Study Final Integrated Feasibility Report and Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (USACE and SFWMD, 1999), which laid out the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan.

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