Appendix F
Interview Guides

INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR MARKEY SCHOLARS

  1. Items for all Scholars

  1. What was your reaction when you found out that you had been nominated for and received the Markey Award?

  2. Describe how the Markey award affected your independence as a postdoc.

    Were you able to develop your own pilot data?

    Were you able to conduct your own research projects, or were you able to engage in early grant writing?

  3. How did the Markey award affect your plans when you were a postdoc?

    Did it make your life more flexible?

    In what ways did it make your life more flexible?

    Did the Markey Award provide you with opportunities other postdocs missed?

    What were those opportunities?

    Describe how receiving the award impacted your postdoc and the relationships you had with colleagues and supervisors.



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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program Appendix F Interview Guides INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR MARKEY SCHOLARS Items for all Scholars What was your reaction when you found out that you had been nominated for and received the Markey Award? Describe how the Markey award affected your independence as a postdoc. Were you able to develop your own pilot data? Were you able to conduct your own research projects, or were you able to engage in early grant writing? How did the Markey award affect your plans when you were a postdoc? Did it make your life more flexible? In what ways did it make your life more flexible? Did the Markey Award provide you with opportunities other postdocs missed? What were those opportunities? Describe how receiving the award impacted your postdoc and the relationships you had with colleagues and supervisors.

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program What factors influenced your choice of the first position out of the postdoc? Please describe the job search experience. What were your department’s expectations of you as a junior faculty member compared with faculty who did not have the immediate support provided by the Markey Award? Did the Markey Award have a positive or neutral effect on being hired? Did the department reduce the amount of support it provided because of the Markey Award? How did this support affect the collegial atmosphere? What were your own expectations as a junior faculty member? Describe the process that led you to enter the industrial sector. Describe the influence of the Markey Award on funding opportunities. What was the prestige/PR value of the Markey award for you? Was the Markey Award a help or hindrance in getting additional funding? What sort of teaching responsibilities were expected of you at your first position? How have these changed over time? What sort of mentoring responsibilities were expected of you in your lab? How did you develop your lab in terms of personnel? how many postdocs have you trained? how many grad students? tell me about the successful ones, the less successful ones. How did the Markey award affect your networking capabilities? Was it a help or hindrance in forming bonds with fellow junior faculty? Please describe your current interests in biomedical research. Are you practicing translational researchthat is, research that engaged in clinical trials, or research in human genetics? [If yes] Does your research require IRB approval?

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program Is what you are doing now, what you envisioned yourself doing when you were a Scholar? If not, what did you envision yourself doing? What factors and situations led you to your current situation? In what directions do you see the biomedical enterprise heading and the consequences for your career plans? [Ask of those not employed in industry] What types of relationships have you established with the biomedical/ pharmaceutical industry? Item Added for Scholars Who Are M.D.s or M.D./Ph.D.s Do you currently or have you ever practiced medicine? [If never practiced] Why did you never practice medicine? [If ever practiced] How has your research activity influenced the way you practice(d) medicine? INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR COMPARISON GROUP MEMBERS Items for all Comparison Group Members How much independence did you have with your research as a postdoctoral fellow? As a junior faculty member? Discuss your ability to set up a lab as a junior faculty member. What about interrelationships with senior faculty, do you think that you were too independent or not independent enough, or were the relationship about right? What impact do you think this level of independence had on your career and scientific achievements? Describe your job search at the end of your postdoctoral fellowship. What things affected your early career as a faculty member and your relationships with other junior faculty in your department? Did your postdoctoral education provide you any opportunities for career flexibility, a change in career direction, or career development/ enhancement? Describe these opportunities. How did your postdoctoral experience affect your visibility within your institution(s)? Did you ever feel that too much was expected of you because of postdocs?

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program How did your postdoctoral education affect your professional network? Affect your visibility within your field? Discuss how changes to your professional network have enhanced your research? How has your research enhanced your networks? Discuss you ability to attract funding from extramural sources. From intramural sources. What factors have affected your ability to obtain funding? Describe how your postdoctoral education affected your ability to attract students, postdoctoral fellows, or other faculty to your lab and/or department. Describe the new scientific ideas, patents, discoveries, licenses, inventions or procedures that developed as a direct or indirect result of your postdoctoral education. Is there anything else you would like to add about your postdoctoral education in general and its impact on your education and career? Items Added for Comparison Group Members Who Are Physicians Do you currently or have you ever practiced medicine? [If never practiced] Why did you never practice medicine? [If ever practiced] How has your research activity influenced the way you practice(d) medicine? INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR MARKEY VISITING FELLOWS Items for all Fellows What was your reaction when you found out that you had been nominated for and received the Markey Visiting Fellows Award? Describe how the Markey award affected your independence as a postdoc. [Were you able to develop your own pilot data, were you able to conduct your own research projects?] How did the Markey award affect your plans following completion of the fellowship? Did it make your life more “flexible”? [In what ways?] Did the Markey Award provide you with opportunities other fellows/postdocs may have missed?

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program Describe the influence of the Markey Award on obtaining subsequent postdoctoral positions. What was the prestige/PR value of the Markey award for you? What was different about postdoctoral research in the United States compared to postdoctoral research in the United Kingdom? What factors influenced your choice of the first position out of the postdoc? Please describe the job search experience. Why did you decide to remain in the United States following the completion of the Markey Fellowship? Why did you decide not to remain in the United States following the completion of the Markey Fellowship? What was the impact of the Markey Fellowship on your research? Please describe your current interests in biomedical research. Are you practicing translational research that is, research that is engaged in clinical trials, or research in human genetics? Is what you are doing now, what you envisioned yourself doing when you were a Markey Fellow? If not, what did you envision yourself doing? What factors and situations led you to your current situation? In what directions do you see the biomedical enterprise heading and the consequences for your career plans? [Ask of those not employed in industry] What types of relationships have you established with the biomedical/ pharmaceutical industry? Item to Be Added for Fellows Who Are M.D.s or M.D./Ph.D.s Do you currently or have you ever practiced medicine. [If never practiced] Why did you never practice medicine? [If ever practiced] How has your research activity influenced the way you practice(d) medicine?