National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2001. Average Size of NIH Traditional Research Project (R01) Awards. Available at

NIH. 2003. NIH Competing Career Development Applications–Success Rates Fiscal Years 1970–2003. By Funding Mechanism (Activity). Available at

NIH. 2006a. Research Grants Award Data. Available at

NIH. 2006b. NIH Announces Programs to Foster the Independence of New Investigators. Available at

National Research Council (NRC). 1995. Research Doctorate Programs in the United States: Continuity and Change. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 1998. Trends in the Early Careers of Life Scientists. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

NRC. 2005. Bridges to Independence: Fostering the Independence of New Investigators in Biomedical Research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

NRC. 2006. Enhancing Philanthropy’s Support of Biomedical Scientists: Proceedings of a Workshop on Methodology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies. 1997. Science and Engineering Doctorates Awards: 1996: Detailed Statistical Tables. NSF 97-329, by Susan T. Hill. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

Nicklin, Julie L. 1997. “Markey Trust, Having Given $500-Million, Will Close This Year.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. February 28.

Spradley, James P. 1983. The Ethnographic Interview. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement