Appendix C
Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust Programs

The Markey Trust made awards in the three main stages of a biomedical research career in which “supporting and encouraging basic medical research” can occur.

  1. General Organizational Grants were directed to improve the education and training of both Ph.D.s and M.D.s planning careers in basic clinical research and research in molecular medicine.

  2. Markey Scholars and Fellows Awards identified and supported outstanding younger researchers in the biomedical sciences, providing them with long-term financial assistance early in their careers.

  3. Research Program Grants provided funding opportunities for established scientists with proven records of excellence in biomedical research.

A few grants that fell outside the above categories were put into a miscellaneous category. The distribution of funding is shown in Figure C-1. This Appendix describes the General Organizational Grants program, Research Program Grants, and miscellaneous awards.

GENERAL ORGANIZATIONAL GRANTS

Almost at its inception, The Markey Trust had become cognizant of a growing gap between biomedical research and clinical application. In 1989, input was sought from a number of biomedical scientists on directions for Trust funding during its remaining term. They advised that there



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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program Appendix C Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust Programs The Markey Trust made awards in the three main stages of a biomedical research career in which “supporting and encouraging basic medical research” can occur. General Organizational Grants were directed to improve the education and training of both Ph.D.s and M.D.s planning careers in basic clinical research and research in molecular medicine. Markey Scholars and Fellows Awards identified and supported outstanding younger researchers in the biomedical sciences, providing them with long-term financial assistance early in their careers. Research Program Grants provided funding opportunities for established scientists with proven records of excellence in biomedical research. A few grants that fell outside the above categories were put into a miscellaneous category. The distribution of funding is shown in Figure C-1. This Appendix describes the General Organizational Grants program, Research Program Grants, and miscellaneous awards. GENERAL ORGANIZATIONAL GRANTS Almost at its inception, The Markey Trust had become cognizant of a growing gap between biomedical research and clinical application. In 1989, input was sought from a number of biomedical scientists on directions for Trust funding during its remaining term. They advised that there

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program FIGURE C-1 Distribution of Markey funding across programs and grant making. SOURCE: Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust, 1996. was general concern in medical schools about the “bed-bench gap” and that plans were emerging in many universities to develop new curricula and teaching techniques to close the gap between laboratory research and research based on clinical observation. The Markey Trust indicated that it would be responsive to proposals to address the development of training programs designed to bridge the “bed-bench” gap. The trustees received a number of proposals that fell into two categories: those that provided significant opportunities for M.D.s to engage in basic research during and immediately following medical school and residency and those that provided significant clinical exposure for Ph.D.s while they were predoctoral or postdoctoral students. The first of these awards, classified as General Organizational Grants, was made in 1992. These grants were designed to close the widening gap between rapid advances in our understanding of biological process and the translation of that knowledge into techniques for preventing diseases (Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust, 1995). General Organizational Grant programs were funded for approximately five years, although due to the flexibility of the Markey grants, many grant recipients were able to extend the grant’s duration. Because of the limited term of the Trust, General Organizational Grants could not

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program be renewed. Between 1988 and 1995, 22 General Organizational Grants amounting to $62,121,700 were awarded. The average amount awarded was about $2.8 million, but award amounts ranged from $50,000 to $13,750,000. RESEARCH PROGRAM GRANTS The largest Markey awards in terms of funding amount and number of projects were the Research Program Grants. These grants were designed to enable investigators to address important issues in the biomedical sciences by developing new approaches or expanding continuing approaches to the study of basic biomedical fields. Research Program Grants were made to institutions with a major commitment to the life sciences to assist in the establishment, reorganization, or expansion of significant biomedical research programs or centers. The grants usually involved funding for the recruitment of new faculty, preand postdoctoral support, completion or renovation of laboratory space, purchase of new equipment, and additional technical assistance (Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust, 1988). Moreover, Research Program Grants were intended to fund research that, generally, would not be funded by the National Institutes of Health. Generally, grants were awarded for five years. Because of the limited term of the Trust, awardees were advised that the grants were not renewable. The Trust made 92 Research Program Grants between the years of 1986 and 1995 amounting to over $316,248,175. In 1996 and 1997 the Trust made 18 supplementary awards of $500,000 each, bring the total awarded funding of Research Program Grants to $325,248,175. MISCELLANEOUS AWARDS During its tenure, the Markey Trust made a number of awards that did not fit into the three major award categories. These awards continued support made by Mrs. Markey during her lifetime, funded endowed chairs, provided scholarships to biomedical researchers, and funded related research support. These award programs, totaling $53,606,232, are listed below. Lucille P. Markey Basic Medical Research Funds To memorialize the Trust’s support for the training of biomedical scientists, endowments totaling $14,000,000 were made to seven institutions. These institutions established permanent endowments known as the

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program Lucille P. Markey Basic Medical Research Funds to provide support for promising predoctoral and postdoctoral fellows and junior faculty.1 Markey Predoctoral Fellows In its early years the Trust provided $9,400,000 to 15 academic institutions to assist predoctoral students in biomedical science programs. These graduate students were known as Markey Fellows. Other Grants for Career Development The Trust provided $3,030,000 to six research institutes to fund summer seminars and short courses for potential scientists in basic medical research.2 Continuation of Programs Initiated by Mrs. Markey These awards were made in 1984 and 1985 to the University of Kentucky and University of Miami and totaled $8,700,000. Endowed Chairs Between 1985 and 1996, the Markey Trust provided $11,500,000 to fund endowed chairs.3 Research Support and Related Grants Between 1985 and 1997, the Trust provided $6,976,232 to fund 56 miscellaneous grants to support smaller research projects and to encourage or facilitate basic medical research. 1 These seven institutions were: Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Rockefeller University, Stanford University, University of California, San Francisco, University of Michigan, and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. 2 These include: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Jackson Laboratory, Marine Biology Laboratory, Mount Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Vassar College, and Life Sciences Research Foundation. 3 The endowed chairs were: Rockefeller University, Henry G. Kunkel Professor; University of Kentucky, Warren Wright, Sr.-Lucille Wright Markey Chair, Gluck Equine Research Center; University of Kentucky, Lucille P. Markey Chair in Oncology Research; University of Kentucky, Warren Wright, Sr.-Lucille Wright Markey Chair, Gluck Equine Research Center (supplement); University of Miami, Markey Professorship in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Washington University in St. Louis, Markey Professorship in Basic Biomedical or Basic Biological Sciences; and Yale University, Lucille P. Markey Professorship in Biomedical Sciences.