EVALUATION OF THE MARKEY SCHOLARS PROGRAM

Committee for the Evaluation of the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust Programs in Biomedical Sciences

Board on Higher Education and Workforce

Policy and Global Affairs

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, DC
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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program EVALUATION OF THE MARKEY SCHOLARS PROGRAM Committee for the Evaluation of the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust Programs in Biomedical Sciences Board on Higher Education and Workforce Policy and Global Affairs NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, DC www.nap.edu

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Grant No. 98-1 between the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust and the National Academy of Sciences. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-10292-8 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program COMMITTEE FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE LUCILLE P. MARKEY CHARITABLE TRUST PROGRAMS IN BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES Lee Sechrest, University of Arizona, Chair Enriqueta Bond, (IOM), Burroughs-Wellcome Fund William T. Butler (IOM), Baylor College of Medicine Elaine K. Gallin, Doris Duke Charitable Foundation Mary-Lou Pardue (NAS), Massachusetts Institute of Technology Georgine Pion, Vanderbilt University Lloyd H. Smith (IOM), University of California, San Francisco (Ret.) Virginia V. Weldon (IOM), Monsanto Company (Ret.) James Wyngaarden (IOM), Duke University (Ret.) Staff Peter H. Henderson, Director, Board on Higher Education and Workforce George R. Reinhart, Senior Program Officer and Study Director Krystyna Isaacs, Consultant

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program BOARD ON HIGHER EDUCATION AND WORKFORCE Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Cornell University, Chair Bert Barnow, Johns Hopkins University Donald L. Bitzer, North Carolina State University Carlos G. Gutierrez, California State University, Los Angeles Donald L. Johnson, Grain Processing Corporation (Ret.) Claudia Mitchell-Kernan, University of California, Los Angeles Michael T. Nettles, Educational Testing Service Debra W. Stewart, The Council of Graduate Schools Tadataka Yamada, GlaxoSmithKline Staff Peter Henderson, Director, Board on Higher Education and Workforce Rae Allen, Administrative Associate

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program Preface In response to a request by the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust, the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academies, through the Board on Higher Education and Workforce (BHEW), is conducting an evaluation of the Markey Trust’s grant programs in the biomedical sciences. During an interval of 15 years, the Markey Trust spent over $500 million on four programs in the basic biomedical sciences that supported the education and research of graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, junior faculty, and senior researchers. This project addresses two questions: “were these funds well spent?” and “what can others in the biomedical and philanthropic communities learn from the programs of the Markey Trust?” To accomplish these goals, the committee overseeing the project: examined the General Organizational Grants program, intended to catalyze new ways to train Ph.D. and M.D. students in translational research; convened a conference of Markey Scholars and Visiting Fellows in 2002; reviewed the Research Programs Grants, which provided funding to institutions to support the work of senior investigators; vevaluated the program for Markey Scholars and Visiting Fellows, which supported young biomedical investigators in their early careers; and conducted a workshop to investigate methods used to evaluate funding of biomedical science by philanthropic donors.

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program This is the fifth in a series of reports that document the activities of the Markey Trust. This report examines the Markey Scholars in Biomedical Science and the Markey Visiting Fellows programs, funded by the Markey Trust between 1985 and 1995. The Markey Scholars program funded outstanding biomedical researchers for up to seven years, focusing on the transition from the postdoctorate to junior faculty status. The goal of the program was to ensure maximum productivity, intellectual growth, and independent research among grantees. The Markey Visiting Fellows program provided two years of postdoctoral funding for outstanding young scientists from the United Kingdom and Australia at leading American research institutions. This report examines the career paths and research outcomes of the Markey grantees and, in the case of the Markey Scholars, examines their progress relative to that of a comparison group. The report also details the Scholar selection process and its impact on Scholar outcomes. Finally, the report makes recommendations to other philanthropic funders of biomedical researchers. Previously published reports in this series detailing the activities of the Markey Trust are (1) Bridging the Bed-Bench Gap: Contributions of the Markey Trust, which examined the General Organizational Grants program; (2) The Markey Scholars Conference Proceedings, which summarized presentations and abstracts from the 2002 Markey Scholars Conference held as part of the National Academies evaluation; (3) Funding Biomedical Research Programs: Contributions of the Markey Trust, which reviewed the Research Program Grants, and (4) Enhancing Philanthropy’s Support of Biomedical Scientists: Proceedings of a Workshop on Evaluation, which presented a series of papers on evaluation presented at a workshop conducted by the National Academies. All reports are available through the National Academies Press. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Howard Garrison, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology; Paul Klotman, Mount Sinai Medical Center; Michael Leibowitz, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School; Henry Riecken, University of Pennsylvania; Nancy Street, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; and Keith Yamamoto, University of California, San Francisco.

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lyle Jones, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Appointed by the National Academies, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The production of this report was the result of planning and oversight for a sustained period of time by the study Committee. I wish to thank Krystyna Isaacs for her outstanding assistance to this report. She interviewed all the Markey Scholars and Visiting Fellows, transcribed and compiled their responses, and contributed to the sections of the report that describe the outcomes of the interviews. George Reinhart, Study Director, ably assisted the committee in this study. Lee Sechrest Chair Committee for the Evaluation of the Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust Programs in Biomedical Sciences

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program Contents     Summary   1 1   Introduction   5      Charge to the Committee,   5      Markey Grant Programs,   6 2   Markey Awards in Biomedical Sciences   8      Development of the Scholars Program,   8      Markey Scholars Selection Process,   10      Monitoring the Progress of Scholars,   17      Markey Scholars Conference,   19 3   Evaluation Methodology   21      Sources of Data,   22      Response from Scholars and Comparison Group Members,   27 4   Outcomes for the Markey Scholars   30      Analyses of CVs, CRISP, and Citation Data,   30      Interviews of Scholars and Top-Ranked and Competitive Candidates,   37 5   Lucille P. Markey Visiting Fellows Program   59      Evaluation of the Visiting Fellows Program,   61      Interviews with Markey Fellows,   61 6   Conclusions and Recommendations   65     References   71

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program     Appendixes          A  Committee Members Biographical Information   75      B  History of the Markey Trust   78      C  Lucille P. Markey Charitable Trust Programs   83      D  Markey Scholar Awards in Biomedical Sciences   87      E  United Kingdom and Australian Visiting Fellows   102      F  Interview Guides   108 TABLES 2-1   Initial Scholar Stipend and Research Allowance Schedule,   10 2-2   Number and Characteristics of Nominations for Markey Scholar Awards in Biomedical Science, by Year,   12 2-3   Number of Markey Scholar Nominations, by Nomination Outcome and Year,   15 2-4   Percentage of Applicants who were Women at the Stages of the Markey Award Pathway,   17 2-5   Number of Markey Scholars, by Gender and Degree,   17 3-1   Schedule of Markey Scholar and Comparison Group Interviews,   26 3-2   Number of Comparison Group Members, by Level of Contact,   28 4-1   Differences Among Markey Scholars, Top-Ranked, and Competitive Candidates in Academia on Selected Outcome Measures,   31 4-2   Number and Percentage of Markey Scholars and Top-Ranked and Competitive Candidates in Academia by Faculty Rank,   31 4-3   Mean and Median Number of Journal Articles for Markey Scholars, Top-Ranked Candidates, and Competitive Candidates, by Cycle and Overall,   33 4-4   Mean and Median Number of Citations per Individual and Mean Citations per Article for Markey Scholars, Top-Ranked Candidates, and Competitive Candidates,   35

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Evaluation of the Markey Scholars Program 4-5   Differences in Grant Awards Among Markey Scholars, Top-Ranked Candidates, and Competitive Candidates,   36 4-6   Differences in Grant Awards Among Markey Scholars, Top-Ranked Candidates, and Competitive Candidates in Academia,   36 4-7   Percentage Claiming Independence, by Degree and Group,   38 4-8   Percentage Claiming Independence, by Gender and Group,   39 4-9   Percentage Distribution of Reasons for Selecting First Professional Position, by Group,   41 4-10   Number Who Changed Institutions Between the Completion of Training and Commencement of First Faculty Appointment, by Group and Degree,   43 4-11   Number Who Left Academic Bench Science by the Time of Interview, by Group,   44 4-12   Number of Principal Investigators in Academia, by Laboratory Size and Group,   46 4-13   Percentage of Interviewees Engaged in Commercial Interests, by Type of Interest and Group,   47 4-14   Percentage of Interviewees Engaged in Clinical or Translational Research, by Group,   53 FIGURE C-1   Distribution of Markey Funding Across Programs and Grant Making,   84

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