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Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning GREEN SCHOOLS ATTRIBUTES FOR HEALTH AND LEARNING Committee to Review and Assess the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by a Master Services Agreement between the National Academy of Sciences and the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (awarded November 2004); Grant 1906 between the Barr Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences (awarded September 2004); and funding from the Connecticut Clean Energy Fund (awarded April 2005), the Kendall Foundation (awarded March 2005), and the U.S. Green Building Council (awarded February 2005). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10286-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10286-3 Copies of this report are available from the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Room 967, Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-3376. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning COMMITTEE TO REVIEW AND ASSESS THE HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY BENEFITS OF GREEN SCHOOLS JOHN D. SPENGLER, Harvard University, Chair VIVIAN E. LOFTNESS, Carnegie Mellon University, Vice Chair CHARLENE W. BAYER, Georgia Institute of Technology JOHN S. BRADLEY, National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada GLEN I. EARTHMAN, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University PEYTON A. EGGLESTON, Johns Hopkins University PAUL FISETTE, University of Massachusetts, Amherst CAROLINE BREESE HALL, University of Rochester GARY T. HENRY, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill CLIFFORD S. MITCHELL, Johns Hopkins University MARK S. REA, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute HENRY SANOFF, North Carolina State University CAROL H. WEISS, Harvard University (resigned September 2005) SUZANNE M. WILSON, Michigan State University Staff LYNDA STANLEY, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment KEVIN LEWIS, Program Officer PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant
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Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT HENRY J. HATCH, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (retired), Oakton, Virginia, Chair MASSOUD AMIN, University of Minnesota REGINALD DesROCHES, Georgia Institute of Technology DENNIS DUNNE, Consultant, Scottsdale, Arizona PAUL FISETTE, University of Massachusetts, Amherst LUCIA GARSYS, Hillsborough County, Florida THEODORE C. KENNEDY, BE&K, Inc. SUE McNEIL, University of Delaware DEREK PARKER, Anshen+Allen WILLIAM WALLACE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute CRAIG ZIMRING, Georgia Institute of Technology Staff LYNDA STANLEY, Director KEVIN LEWIS, Program Officer DANA CAINES, Financial Associate PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant
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Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: David W. Bearg, Life Energy Associates Sheila Bosch, Green Ark, Inc. Julie Dockrell, University of London Dennis Dunne, dddunne & associates James W. Guthrie, Vanderbilt University Alan Hedge, Cornell University James Kadamus, Sightlines, Inc. Melvin Mark, Pennsylvania State University Donald Milton, University of Massachusetts, Lowell William B. Rose, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Ward V. Wells, Texas A&M University Richard N. Wright, National Institute of Standards and Technology (retired)
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Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Henry W. Riecken, University of Pennsylvania, Emeritus. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 15 School Construction and Related Issues, 17 A School Building as a System of Systems, 20 School Building Performance, 21 “Green” Building Movement, 23 Green School Guidelines, 24 Statement of Task, 26 Finding and Recommendations, 26 Organization of the Report, 27 Note to Readers, 28 2 COMPLEXITY OF THE TASK AND THE COMMITTEE’S APPROACH 29 Complexity of the Task, 29 The Committee’s Approach, 35 Findings and Recommendation, 38 3 BUILDING ENVELOPE, MOISTURE MANAGEMENT, AND HEALTH 40 Excess Moisture and Health, 42 Building Envelope and Moisture Management, 46 Solutions/Design Requirements for Moisture Management, 48
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Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning Current Green School Guidelines, 52 Findings and Recommendations, 52 4 INDOOR AIR QUALITY, HEALTH, AND PERFORMANCE 54 Pollutant Sources, 55 Ventilation, 60 Thermal Comfort, 65 Perception of Air Quality (Sensory Loads), 66 Ventilation System Standards, 71 Solutions/Design Requirements for Indoor Air Quality, 72 Current Green School Guidelines, 75 Findings and Recommendations, 77 5 LIGHTING AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE 80 Lighting for Visual Performance, 80 Lighting and the Circadian System, 85 Solutions/Design Requirements for Visual Performance, 87 Current Green School Guidelines, 89 Findings and Recommendations, 89 6 ACOUSTICAL QUALITY, STUDENT LEARNING, AND TEACHER HEALTH 92 Effects of Excessive Noise, 94 Excessive Noise and Student Achievement, 97 Excessive Noise and Teachers’ Health, 100 Solutions/Design Requirements, 101 Current Green School Guidelines, 103 Findings and Recommendations, 103 7 BUILDING CHARACTERISTICS AND THE SPREAD OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES 105 Modes of Transmission for Respiratory Viruses, 106 Measures for Controlling the Spread of Infections in Schools, 110 Decontamination of Environmental Surfaces, 112 Ventilation and Air Cleaning, 113 Findings and Recommendations, 118 8 OVERALL BUILDING CONDITION AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT 120 Building Condition and Student Achievement, 120 School Building Functionality and Student Achievement, 124 Limitations of the Current Studies, 126
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Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning Current Green School Guidelines, 128 Finding, 128 9 PROCESSES AND PRACTICES FOR PLANNING AND MAINTAINING GREEN SCHOOLS 129 Participatory Planning, 130 Building Commissioning: Quality Assurance for Building Performance, 132 Monitoring Building Performance Over Time, 136 Postoccupancy Evaluation, 138 Training for Educators and Support Staff, 139 Current Green School Guidelines, 141 Findings and Recommendations, 141 10 LINKING GREEN SCHOOLS TO HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY: RESEARCH CONSIDERATIONS 143 Research Methodologies, 145 Considerations in Designing Green Schools-Related Research, 147 Findings, 152 BIBLIOGRAPHY 155 APPENDIX: Biographies of Committee Members 175
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