GREEN SCHOOLS

ATTRIBUTES FOR HEALTH AND LEARNING

Committee to Review and Assess the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools

Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning GREEN SCHOOLS ATTRIBUTES FOR HEALTH AND LEARNING Committee to Review and Assess the Health and Productivity Benefits of Green Schools Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

OCR for page R1
Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by a Master Services Agreement between the National Academy of Sciences and the Massachusetts Technology Collaborative (awarded November 2004); Grant 1906 between the Barr Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences (awarded September 2004); and funding from the Connecticut Clean Energy Fund (awarded April 2005), the Kendall Foundation (awarded March 2005), and the U.S. Green Building Council (awarded February 2005). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-10286-5 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-10286-3 Copies of this report are available from the Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment, National Research Council, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Room 967, Washington, DC 20001; (202) 334-3376. Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

OCR for page R1
Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning This page intentionally left blank.

OCR for page R1
Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning COMMITTEE TO REVIEW AND ASSESS THE HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY BENEFITS OF GREEN SCHOOLS JOHN D. SPENGLER, Harvard University, Chair VIVIAN E. LOFTNESS, Carnegie Mellon University, Vice Chair CHARLENE W. BAYER, Georgia Institute of Technology JOHN S. BRADLEY, National Research Council, Ottawa, Canada GLEN I. EARTHMAN, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University PEYTON A. EGGLESTON, Johns Hopkins University PAUL FISETTE, University of Massachusetts, Amherst CAROLINE BREESE HALL, University of Rochester GARY T. HENRY, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill CLIFFORD S. MITCHELL, Johns Hopkins University MARK S. REA, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute HENRY SANOFF, North Carolina State University CAROL H. WEISS, Harvard University (resigned September 2005) SUZANNE M. WILSON, Michigan State University Staff LYNDA STANLEY, Director, Board on Infrastructure and the Constructed Environment KEVIN LEWIS, Program Officer PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning BOARD ON INFRASTRUCTURE AND THE CONSTRUCTED ENVIRONMENT HENRY J. HATCH, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (retired), Oakton, Virginia, Chair MASSOUD AMIN, University of Minnesota REGINALD DesROCHES, Georgia Institute of Technology DENNIS DUNNE, Consultant, Scottsdale, Arizona PAUL FISETTE, University of Massachusetts, Amherst LUCIA GARSYS, Hillsborough County, Florida THEODORE C. KENNEDY, BE&K, Inc. SUE McNEIL, University of Delaware DEREK PARKER, Anshen+Allen WILLIAM WALLACE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute CRAIG ZIMRING, Georgia Institute of Technology Staff LYNDA STANLEY, Director KEVIN LEWIS, Program Officer DANA CAINES, Financial Associate PAT WILLIAMS, Senior Project Assistant

OCR for page R1
Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: David W. Bearg, Life Energy Associates Sheila Bosch, Green Ark, Inc. Julie Dockrell, University of London Dennis Dunne, dddunne & associates James W. Guthrie, Vanderbilt University Alan Hedge, Cornell University James Kadamus, Sightlines, Inc. Melvin Mark, Pennsylvania State University Donald Milton, University of Massachusetts, Lowell William B. Rose, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Ward V. Wells, Texas A&M University Richard N. Wright, National Institute of Standards and Technology (retired)

OCR for page R1
Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Henry W. Riecken, University of Pennsylvania, Emeritus. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

OCR for page R1
Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   15      School Construction and Related Issues,   17      A School Building as a System of Systems,   20      School Building Performance,   21      “Green” Building Movement,   23      Green School Guidelines,   24      Statement of Task,   26      Finding and Recommendations,   26      Organization of the Report,   27      Note to Readers,   28 2   COMPLEXITY OF THE TASK AND THE COMMITTEE’S APPROACH   29      Complexity of the Task,   29      The Committee’s Approach,   35      Findings and Recommendation,   38 3   BUILDING ENVELOPE, MOISTURE MANAGEMENT, AND HEALTH   40      Excess Moisture and Health,   42      Building Envelope and Moisture Management,   46      Solutions/Design Requirements for Moisture Management,   48

OCR for page R1
Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning      Current Green School Guidelines,   52      Findings and Recommendations,   52 4   INDOOR AIR QUALITY, HEALTH, AND PERFORMANCE   54      Pollutant Sources,   55      Ventilation,   60      Thermal Comfort,   65      Perception of Air Quality (Sensory Loads),   66      Ventilation System Standards,   71      Solutions/Design Requirements for Indoor Air Quality,   72      Current Green School Guidelines,   75      Findings and Recommendations,   77 5   LIGHTING AND HUMAN PERFORMANCE   80      Lighting for Visual Performance,   80      Lighting and the Circadian System,   85      Solutions/Design Requirements for Visual Performance,   87      Current Green School Guidelines,   89      Findings and Recommendations,   89 6   ACOUSTICAL QUALITY, STUDENT LEARNING, AND TEACHER HEALTH   92      Effects of Excessive Noise,   94      Excessive Noise and Student Achievement,   97      Excessive Noise and Teachers’ Health,   100      Solutions/Design Requirements,   101      Current Green School Guidelines,   103      Findings and Recommendations,   103 7   BUILDING CHARACTERISTICS AND THE SPREAD OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES   105      Modes of Transmission for Respiratory Viruses,   106      Measures for Controlling the Spread of Infections in Schools,   110      Decontamination of Environmental Surfaces,   112      Ventilation and Air Cleaning,   113      Findings and Recommendations,   118 8   OVERALL BUILDING CONDITION AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT   120      Building Condition and Student Achievement,   120      School Building Functionality and Student Achievement,   124      Limitations of the Current Studies,   126

OCR for page R1
Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning      Current Green School Guidelines,   128      Finding,   128 9   PROCESSES AND PRACTICES FOR PLANNING AND MAINTAINING GREEN SCHOOLS   129      Participatory Planning,   130      Building Commissioning: Quality Assurance for Building Performance,   132      Monitoring Building Performance Over Time,   136      Postoccupancy Evaluation,   138      Training for Educators and Support Staff,   139      Current Green School Guidelines,   141      Findings and Recommendations,   141 10   LINKING GREEN SCHOOLS TO HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY: RESEARCH CONSIDERATIONS   143      Research Methodologies,   145      Considerations in Designing Green Schools-Related Research,   147      Findings,   152     BIBLIOGRAPHY   155     APPENDIX: Biographies of Committee Members   175

OCR for page R1
Green Schools: Attributes for Health and Learning This page intentionally left blank.