standing and models that can be used by scientists as well as made ready for transition to the operational community. An interagency-sponsored Community Coordinated Modeling Center has evolved as a facility for validating models that can be used by scientists as well as bringing them a step closer to transition readiness. Finally, NOAA, with cosponsors from other agencies, has held an annual and growing Space Weather Week that brings together research, operations, and users in a forum that promotes communication among these disparate groups and advances the objective of transitioning research to operations.

In spite of these valuable endeavors, there is a considerable gap between what scientists have developed and what actually makes it into operations. Discussions at the workshop considered ideas for narrowing the gap so that knowledge from the solar and space physics scientists could be transferred to support the VSE. It was recognized that communication at workshops such as these, among an interdisciplinary group of participants, can identify where scientists can contribute to the high-priority needs of the users—whether it be those versed in radiation climatology talking to mission planners and hardware engineers, or space environment modelers talking to mission operations personnel. It was also clear that the practical benefit of scientific knowledge and models often requires much work beyond what is needed to make useful scientific tools. Activities such as model validation, robust code development, display design, and training all need to be supported beyond the level of scientific readiness.

By communicating and working closely together with those involved with all phases of the human and robotic missions, solar and space physics scientists have much to contribute to the VSE.

REFERENCES

Nealy, J.E., J.W. Wilson, and L.W. Townsend. 1989. Preliminary Analyses of Space Radiation Protection for Lunar Base Surface Systems. SAE Technical Paper Series 891487. SAE International, Warrendale, Pa.

NRC (National Research Council). 2000. Radiation and the International Space Station: Recommendations to Reduce Risk. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

NRC. 2002. The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond: A Decadal Research Strategy in Solar and Space Physics. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

Simonsen, L.C., J.E. Nealy, L.W. Townsend, and J.W. Wilson. 1990. Radiation Exposure for Manned Mars Surface Missions. NASA Technical Paper 2979. March. NASA Center for AeroSpace Information, Hanover, Md.

Turner, R. 2001. What we must know about solar particle events to reduce the risk to astronauts. Pp. 39-44 in Space Weather (P. Song, H.J. Singer, and G.L. Siscoe, eds.), AGU Monograph 125, AGU Code GM1259841. American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.



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