STANLEY CURTIS, recently retired from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, is an affiliate professor in the Department of Health and Occupational Safety at the University of Washington. Dr. Curtis received his Ph.D. in physics from the University of Washington in experimental cosmic ray physics. He has devoted his career to studying the effects of radiation on living cells, first from the viewpoint of killing cancer cells and more recently from the viewpoint of radiation-induced malignant transformation. He has long been interested in mathematically modeling radiation-induced effects in humans and in improving risk estimates at low doses and dose rates from both high and low linear energy transfer radiation. Dr. Curtis has served on national and international committees involved in determining radiation risk in space. He served on an NRC panel in the early 1970s, the Radiobiological Advisory Panel to the Committee on Space Biology and Medicine, Space Science Board, (1971-1973). He has also served on the Committee on High Energy and Space Radiation (1974-1978) and was a member of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) from 1987 to 1993, as well as three NCRP committees studying radiation risk in space. He was also the chair of the Committee on Space Research of the International Council for Science Subcommittee on Radiation Environment, Biology and Health (1996-2000). He is the author of more than one hundred papers on the subject of radiation effects on cells and radiation risk estimation.


JACK R. JOKIPII is Regents’ Professor within the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona. Dr. Jokipii’s research in the areas of theoretical astrophysics and space physics is primarily related to the transport and acceleration of cosmic rays and energetic particles in the solar wind and in the Galaxy with major current thrusts centering on work on the Voyager, Ulysses, and the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) space missions. Dr. Jokipii and his research group have been guest investigators on these missions and specialize in theoretical interpretation and modeling of the observations. Specifically, Dr. Jokipii’s group is currently in the midst of an extensive program of theoretical research to determine the transport coefficients of energetic particles in irregular (turbulent) plasmas and magnetic fields, avoiding the approximations used previously. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences. His NRC service includes his membership from 2001 to 2003 on the Solar and Space Physics Survey’s Panel on Theory, Computation, and Data Exploration. He serves on the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics, and was a member of the Panel on Space Sciences and is current chair of the Panel on Physical Sciences of the NRC Policy and Global Affairs Division’s Associateship Program.


WILLIAM S. LEWIS is principal scientist with the Space Research and Engineering Division of the Southwest Research Institute. His primary research interest is in the area of auroral physics. He has co-authored papers on Jupiter’s x-ray and far-ultraviolet aurora, Earth’s proton aurora, Europa’s sputter-produced atmosphere, and the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer investigation. He is currently involved in studies using data obtained with the far-ultraviolet imaging system on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft, with particular emphasis on the proton aurora. He served as a consultant to the science and technology definition teams for NASA’s Magnetospheric Multiscale, Geospace Electro-dynamic Connections, and Living With a Star/Geospace missions and is at present a consultant to the recently formed Solar Probe definition team. Dr. Lewis has been involved in the preparation of several NRC documents. As consultant to the Solar and Space Physics Survey Committee, he worked with the committee and NRC staff on the preparation of the first decadal survey in solar and space physics, The Sun to the Earth—and Beyond. He has also worked closely with the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics on Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos and a popular booklet based on the decadal survey report. Dr. Lewis is a member of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) and chaired the Web site committee of the AGU Space Physics and Aeronomy section (July 1998-July 2000). He serves on the NRC Committee on Solar and Space Physics.



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