couple professional and citizen-scientist collection efforts. The combination of professional and citizen-scientist collection efforts extends the potential for data accumulation, although testing and calibration are needed to assure data quality and validity. A monitoring program could be developed for long-term assessment of pollinator status and function using both professional and citizen-science elements. To address the enormous spatial and temporal variability in pollinator populations as well as the taxonomic impediment, calibration systems could be developed to determine the degree of correspondence between data collected by professional scientists at a fine taxonomic resolution, and data collected by citizen-scientists at a coarser resolution. If valid calibrations can be developed and data quality can be assured, use of both types of data sets is likely to provide more information germane to evaluating pollinator status in time and space at a relatively low cost.

Legacy data (specimens archived in museums) could be captured digitally and utilized (more extensively than has been done to date) to provide a baseline for assessing the status of pollinators in North America today. Areas where substantial legacy data exist should be re-surveyed; areas where contemporary surveys are ongoing should be targeted for digital capture of historical specimen data.

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