licize simple activities the public can do to promote and sustain pollinator abundance and diversity.

Although the object of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) is to protect endangered species and their habitats, many endangered pollinators are not recognized candidates for endangered or threatened status. Congress directed that listing of a species required a scientific determination of its continued existence as threatened or endangered, but data on many pollinators are sparse. Also, a 1981 congressional revision of the ESA specifically exempted any “species of the Class Insecta determined by the Secretary to constitute a pest whose protection under the provisions of this Act would present an overwhelming and overriding risk to man.” Some caterpillars and carpenter bees, for example, can cause or have the potential to cause damage, so it could be difficult to use ESA to achieve protection for those species.

Recommendation: Congress should not consider any ESA amendment that would create additional barriers to listing pollinator species as endangered.

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