Pollen The male sex cells of flowering plants (angiosperms) that are found within the microscopic tough-shelled pollen grains. Pollen must be moved from flower to flower for fertilization. The sex cells travel down pollen tubes that grow through the floral style and fertilize the ovules. Seeds develop within the ovary and the fruit forms. Pollen grains also are the indispensable protein and lipid-rich food of bees and many other pollinators.

Pollination The transfer of pollen grains from flower to flower and usually plant to plant by wind, water, or animals.

Queen bee The mother of the bees in a nest; usually a single queen inhabits a mature bee colony. The queen can lay 1,500 or more eggs per day during her lifespan of 2–3 years. If a queen dies, the colony can produce a new queen from a diploid worker egg.

Seed set Formation of seeds, typically after pollination.

Self-compatibility The condition that allows a plant to accept fertilization by its own pollen.

Self-incompatibility The condition that prevents a plant from accepting fertilization by its own pollen.

Self-pollination Pollination by pollen from the same flower or same plant (see geitonogamy); selfing.

Split or divide Beekeepers can divide or split half of the adults, brood, and honey combs from a populous mother colony into two Langstroth hive boxes. A new queen is supplied to the daughter colony, or the bees are allowed to be queenless for a time and to raise a new queen from an egg laid by the old queen.

Stamen Male reproductive organ of a flower that typically includes a filament bearing an anther.

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