Winston, M.L., G.W. Otis, and O.R. Taylor, Jr. 1979. Absconding behaviour of the Africanized honeybee in South America. Journal of Apicultural Research 18(2): 85–94.

Winston, M.L., J.A. Dropkin, and O.R. Taylor, Jr. 1981. Demography and life history characteristics of two honey bee races (Apis mellifera). Oecologia 48: 407–413.

Winston, M.L., O.R. Taylor, Jr., and G.W. Otis. 1983. Some differences between temperate European and tropical African and South American honeybees. Bee World  64(1): 12–21.

Winter, K., L. Adams, R. Thorp, D. Inouye, L. Day, J. Ascher, and S. Buchmann. 2006. Importation of Non-native Bumble Bees into North America: Potential Consequences of  using Bombus terrestris and other Non-native Bumble Bees for Greenhouse Crop Pollination in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. White Paper of the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign. Available at:

Winter, Y., and O. von Helversen. 2001. Bats as pollinators: foraging energetics and floral adaptations. Pp. 148–170 in Cognitive Ecology of Pollination, L. Chittka and J.D. Thomson, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University  Press.

Wolda, H. 1988. Insect seasonality: why? Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 19:: 1–18.

Wraight, C.L., A.R. Zangerl, M.J. Carroll, and M.R. Berenbaum. 2000. Absence of toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis pollen to black swallowtails under field conditions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97(14): 7700–7703.

Wu, J.Q., B.D. Siegfried, and M.D. Ellis. 2003. An investigation of the metabolic detoxification of fluvalinate in Varroa destructor Anderson and Truemann. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter  13(1): 70–75.

Wyatt, R. 1981. Ant-pollination of the granite outcrop endemic Diamorpha smallii (Crassulaceae). American Journal of Botany 68: 1212–1217.

Wyatt, R., and A. Stoneburner. 1981. Patterns of ant-mediated pollen dispersal in Diamorpha smallii (Crassulaceae). Systematic Botany 6: 1–7.

Young, A.M. 1981. The ineffectiveness of the stingless bee Trigona-Jaty (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae) as a pollinator of cocoa (Theobroma-Cacao L). Journal of Applied Ecology 18(1): 149–155.

Young, A.M. 1982. Effects of shade cover and availability of midge breeding sites on pollinating midge populations and fruit-set in 2 cocoa farms. Journal of Applied Ecology 19(1): 47–63.

Young, A.M. 1985. Pollen-collecting by stingless bees on cacao flowers. Experientia 41(6): 760–762.

Young, A.M. 1986. Distribution and abundance of Diptera in flypaper traps at Theobroma-Cacao L (Sterculiaceae) flowers in Costa Rican cacao plantations. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 59(4): 580–587.

Young, A.M. 1994. The Chocolate Tree: A Natural History of  Cacao. Washington: Smithsonian Institute Press.

Yurlina, M.E. 1998. Bee mutualists and plant reproduction in urban woodland restorations. Ph.D. thesis, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Zangerl, A.R., D. McKenna, C.L. Wraight, M. Carroll, P. Ficarello, R. Warner, and M.R. Berenbaum. 2001. Effects of exposure to event 176 Bacillus thuringiensis corn pollen on monarch and black swallowtail caterpillars under field conditions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98: 11908–11912.

Zavaleta, E.S., R.J. Hobbs, and H.A. Mooney. 2001. Viewing invasive species removal in a whole ecosystem context. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16: 454–459.

Zayed, A., and L. Packer. 2001. High levels of diploid male production in a primitively eusocial bee (Hymenoptera: Halictidae). Heredity 87: 631–636.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement