The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization was invited to coordinate the initiative among the participating nations and agencies and to devise a plan that was based on the recommendations in the São Paulo Declaration on Pollinators. In April 2002, the International Pollinator Initiative was approved at the sixth meeting of the Conference of the Parties, which was convened in the Netherlands ( In March 2006, at the United Nations Convention on Biodiversity, Conference of the Parties, general meeting 8 in Curitiba, Brazil, the publication, Pollinators and Pollination: A Resource Book for Policy and Practice (Eardley et al., 2006), was heralded.

Between 1995 and 1999, the tri-national (United States, Canada, Mexico) Forgotten Pollinators (FP) Campaign was co-founded and directed by Gary Nabhan and Stephen Buchmann at the Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum in Tucson, Arizona. During its later years, the FP Campaign shifted its emphasis to focus on migratory pollinators (bats, hummingbirds, white-winged doves, monarch butterflies) in the United States and Mexico. In 1999, the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign (NAPPC) was launched by the Coevolution Institute in San Francisco, California, in collaboration with the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. NAPPC is a tri-national public-private partnership of more than 100 organizations and agencies that promote pollinator awareness, policies, educational outreach, research, and conservation. Also in 1999, USDA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sponsored a joint meeting in Logan, Utah (Tepedino and Ginsberg, 2000), to explore the issue of pollinator decline. In November 1999, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) convened a workshop to obtain stakeholder input from state departments of agriculture, universities, pesticide companies, beekeepers, and extension agents on research priorities for the Bees and Pollination Component of the Crop Production National Program Writing Teams. These teams were formed at each of the workshops and consisted of ARS scientists and members of the ARS National Program Staff. The first function of each was to identify problem area topics for inclusion in the National Program Action Plan. Subsequently, individual team members were assigned as principal authors for each area identified. Writing teams and individual writers used input from the workshops, their own knowledge, and input from other ARS scientists and cooperators to identify research goals and activities to develop this action plan (

Also in 1999, the National Science Foundation (NSF) funded a meeting at the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS) on pollinator decline, the proceedings of which were published in 2001 ( in the journal Conserva-

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