Internet communications, which have the potential to increase the usefulness and accuracy of seafood consumption communications.

RESEARCH GAPS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Seafood Consumption

Recommendation 1: Research is needed on systematic surveillance studies of targeted subpopulations. Such studies should be carried out using state-of-the-art assessment methods to determine the intake levels of seafood, EPA/DHA and other dietary constituents, and the variability of those intake levels among population groups.

Recommendation 2: Sufficiently large analytic samples of the most common seafood types need to be obtained and examined. These samples should be used to determine the levels of nutrients, toxicants, and contaminants in each species and the variability between them, which should be reported transparently.

Recommendation 3: Additional data is needed to assess benefits and risks associated with seafood consumption within the same population or population subgroup.

Pregnant and Lactating Women

Recommendation 4: Better data are needed to determine if outcomes of increasing consumption of seafood or increasing EPA/DHA intake levels in US women would be comparable to outcomes of populations in other countries. Such studies should be encouraged to include populations of high fish-consumers outside the United States to determine if there are differences in risks for these populations compared to US populations.

Recommendation 5: Dose-response studies of EPA/DHA in pregnant and lactating women are needed. This information will help determine if higher intakes can further increase gestation duration, reduce premature births, and benefit infant development. Other studies should include assessing whether DHA alone can act independently of EPA to increase duration of gestation.

Infants and Toddlers

Recommendation 6: Research is needed to determine if cognitive and developmental outcomes in infants are correlated with performance later in childhood. This should include:



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