TABLE 4-11 Estimated Annual Occurrence of Parasitic Infections Due to Consumption of Seafood, Based on Original Compilation by FDA

Parasite

Worldwide

USA

Source

Tapeworm

9,000,000

100,000

Bylund, 1982

Fluke

20,000,000

Relatively low

Rim, 1982

Roundworm

2000+

50

Higashi, 1985

SOURCE: As referenced in FDA, 1987.

the number of cases over 24 months during 1998–2000 at 38 parasitic infections, of which 17 were anisikiasis, 16 were diphyllobothriasis, and 5 were pseudoterranoviasis. In the final report, the AGA estimated the actual number of infections would likely be 270 cases. This survey is considered one of the most current estimates for seafoodborne parasite infections in the United States but as a single survey, it is also considered underreporting. Nevertheless, seafoodborne parasitic infections are not common in the United States.

The guidelines for seafood processing and handling that accompanied the FDA mandate for HACCP regulations introduced additional specific controls to further prevent seafoodborne parasitic infections (FDA, 2001a). The FDA identified seafood species of concern (Table 4-12) and controls for HACCP program compliance (Table 4-13). Cooking and freezing had previously been reported as effective methods to kill parasites in order to

TABLE 4-12 Seafood Identified by the FDA that Could Involve Potential Parasite Hazards If Consumed Raw and Not Previously Frozen

Bass, Sea

Caplin

Cobia

Cod

Corvina

Eelpout

Flounders,a Sole, Dab, and Fluke

Grouper

Halibut

Herrings

Hogfish

Jacks

Kahawai

Mackerels

Monkfish

Mullet

Perch, Ocean

Plaice

Pollock

Rockfish

Sablefish

Salmona

Scad

Sea trout

Snapper

Sprat

Thorny head

Tomcod

Tongue sole

Trevally

Trout

Tunab

Turbot

Wolffish

Octopus

Squid

Snails

NOTES: The general market names can include numerous species from various locations. The original sources should be referenced for actual species identified.

aIncludes wild and aquacultured sources if fresh fish or plankton used as feed.

bOnly applies to small tuna species; excludes large tuna species such as the yellowfin, bigeye, bluefin, and albacore.

SOURCE: FDA, 2001a.



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