Advertising and Promotion

Advertising and promotion may include nonregulated point-of-purchase information, which can be displayed on placards, shelf tags, or in pamphlets or brochures. In addition to regulated labeling and point-of-purchase information, several types of retail information are available to consumers making food choices. For processed foods, packaging information includes the brand, product name, and unregulated product claims and other information. It is estimated that $7.3 billion was spent on advertising food in 1999 (Story and French, 2004).

As well, several other forms of point-of-purchase (e.g., signage, brochures) and other forms of information (e.g., websites) may be provided. Other means to convey this information to consumers may include live demonstrations, computer booths, or recorded presentations as adjuncts to the printed information.

Web-Based Health Information

Interactive Health Communication Much of the rapidly rising use of the Internet is devoted to seeking health information: four out of five Internet users (95 million Americans) have Internet access to look for health-related information; 59 percent of female users have used the Internet to look for information on nutrition (Fox, 2005). The promise of eHealth and, in particular, interactive health communication (IHC) (Eng et al., 1999; Eng and Gustafson, 1999; Wyatt and Sullivan, 2005), has captured the attention of health communicators, in part due to the ability to target and tailor communications, disseminate them rapidly, and engage the audience in an exchange of information, rather than a one-way message delivery (Gustafson et al., 1999); compared with Griffiths et al., 2006. Evaluation of IHC, which falls under the category of eHealth, remains challenging (Eysenbach and Kummervold, 2005). While ethical issues such as unequal access to the Internet and maintaining confidentiality of information pose challenges, IHC has become an important tool for health communicators.

Online Seafood Information and Advocacy There are currently several examples of online seafood consumption information and advocacy available, as illustrated in Table 6-1. For example, Oceans Alive, a nongovernmental organization (Environmental Defense Network), offers “Buying Guide: Becoming a Smarter Seafood Shopper,” on its website ( Other sites offer nutrition information about seafood; however, a cursory glance suggests that some sites may not be updated frequently, and so may provide out-of-date nutritional and other guidance. Updating is likely to be a challenge for any interactive guidance

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