4 formula diets (all in g/100 g):

Diet 1 (Diet D-):

1.6 LA, 0.1 ALA, no GLA, AA, or DHA

Diet 2 (Diet D+):

1.9 LA, 0.1 GLA, 0.4 AA, 0.1 ALA, 0.3 DHA

Diet 3 (Diet C-):

15.6 LA, 1.5 ALA, no GLA, AA, or DHA

Diet 4 (Diet C+):

16.4 LA, 0.1 GLA, 0.4 AA, 1.6 ALA, 0.3 DHA

There were no significant differences in brain weight, brain protein, DNA, cholesterol or phospholipid concentrations, or CNPase activity among the different diet groups.

Piglets fed formulas with AA and DHA had significantly higher frontal cortex dopamine, HVA, norepinephrine, tryptophan and serotonin concentrations than piglets fed formulas without AA and DHA.

The concentrations of all frontal cortex monoamines and metabolites in piglets fed Diet 2 formula were not different from those of piglets fed Diets 3 and 4.

The inclusion of AA and DHA in Diet 4 had no significant effect on any of the frontal cortex monoamines or metabolites measured, compared to Diet 3.


ALA-deficient diet:

6% fat as peanut oil

6 mg ALA/100 g diet

1200 mg LA/100 g diet

Control diet:

60% peanut oil, 40% rapeseed oil

200 mg ALA/100 g diet

1200 mg LA/100 g diet

In the control diet group, n-3 (mostly DHA) levels reached a maximum in the stratium and a minimum in the frontal cortex at 12 months of age and remained unchanged during aging in the cerebellum.

“In the deficient diet group, DHA content considerably reduced as compared with controls.”

No specific effects of the deficient diet were found on the proportion of any phospholipid classes.

In the control diet group, dopamine levels reached a maximum at 6 months of age, were decreased up to 12 months of age, and then stabilized in the stratium and frontal cortex. However, “the levels were not diet related in the stratium but were dramatically reduced in the frontal cortex of deficient rats and remained unchanged throughout all ages.”

In the control diet group, 5-HT levels increased between 2 and 6 months of age in the stratium and then stabilized; they did not change in the frontal cortex or cerebellum during aging.


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