20–39

40–59

60 and older

Pregnant/ Lactating Women

Females, Aged 15 to 45 Years

Males

Females

Males

Females

Males

Females

1372

1844

1345

1361

1512

1549

709

3658

1.74

1.33

1.75

1.33

1.45

1.18

1.47

1.32

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.04

0.03

0.02

0.06

0.03

42.83

32.66

56.42

42.99

43.17

36.43

40.13

34.09

4.23

2.73

5.14

7.56

4.60

3.19

8.80

4.69

82.43

63.01

108.92

72.55

78.14

64.88

73.19

62.11

6.22

5.15

7.83

7.82

5.89

4.01

10.54

4.93

125.26

95.67

165.33

115.54

121.31

101.31

113.32

96.19

10.19

7.66

12.59

14.96

10.27

7.11

18.72

9.33

and egg products will continue to contribute significant amounts of DHA is uncertain because of changes in feed composition aimed at reducing amount of fishmeal used in animal feeds (Barlow, 2001).

As with farmed fish, feeding practices used in the poultry and egg industries may affect the content of EPA/DHA in these foods. Poultry feeds are predominantly vegetable- and grain-based, supplemented with animal and grain by-products (IOM, 2003), with cost driving the feed formulation. Fat sources used in poultry feed formulations can include animal fat, vegetable fat or oil, or feed-grade fat products (Hulan et al., 1989; Ratnayake and Ackman, 1989; Cantor, 1999; Gonzalez-Esquerra and Leeson, 2000). The feed ingredients most frequently used to increase the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) content of poultry meat include fish oil, flaxseed oil, and rapeseed (canola) oil (Komprda et al., 2005). The amount of fish meal used in a formulation has typically been about 1 percent of the total ingredients (IOM, 2003). Recent changes in fat sources used in poultry feed resulting in a lower fish meal content (Barlow, 2001) suggest a probable



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