Categories of fish intake:

1 = 0 g/day

2 = 0-10 g/day

3 = 10-20 g/day

4 = >20 g/day

Quintiles of fatty acids

After adjusting for age and energy:

Men in the 3rd category of fish intake had a significantly lower RR of colon cancer compared to men in the 1st category of fish intake (RR=0.41, 95% CI 0.21-0.83). No other significant relative risks of colon cancer were found based on fish intake for men, women, or both sexes; and

No significant associations were found between risk of colon cancer and intake of energy, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, or protein for among men, women, or both sexes.



“Increasing evidence from animal and in vitro studies indicates that n-3 fatty acids, especially the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids EPA and DHA, present in fatty fish and fish oils, inhibit carcinogenesis.”

“The epidemiologic data on the association between fish consumption, as a surrogate marker for n-3 fatty acid intake, and cancer risk are, however, somewhat less consistent.”

n-3 fatty acids may modify the carcinogenic process by suppressing AA-derived eicosanoid biosynthesis; influencing transcription factor activity, gene expression, and signal transduction pathways; modulating estrogen metabolism; increasing or decreasing the production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species; and influencing insulin sensitivity and membrane fluidity.


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