TABLE C-2 Processes of Change



Thinking and Feeling Processes Occurring in Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, and Maintenance

Consciousness raising

Increases information, feedback and understanding about self and problem

Dramatic relief

Expresses and experiences feelings about one’s problems and solutions


Assesses one’s feelings about oneself with respect to problem


Consciously chooses and commits to act; believes in ability to change

Social liberation

Increases available alternatives for non-problem societal behaviors

Environmental reevaluation

Assesses how one’s problems affect physical condition and social environment

Doing and Reinforcing Processes Occurring in Preparation, Action, and Maintenance

Helping relationships

Is open and trusting about one’s problems with someone who cares

Reinforcement management

Rewards self for making changes

Interpersonal systems control



Substitutes alternatives for problem behavior

Stimulus control

Avoids stimuli that produce problem behavior

SOURCE: Adapted from the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 102(Supplement 3), Sigman-Grant, Strategies for counseling adolescents, S32–S39, Copyright (2002), with permission from the American Dietetic Association.

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