of the federal jurisdiction of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and thus avoid the need for federal permits.

  • Existing biases of many decision-makers in favor of bulkheads and revetments with minimal footprints in public trust areas limit installation of other erosion control options that may provide more ecological benefits.

  • The regulatory framework affects choices and outcomes. Producing a different outcome requires altering the incentives that emerge from the regulatory framework. Regulatory factors include the length of time required for the permit approval; incentives that the regulatory system creates to favor one technology over another; general knowledge of the options and understanding of the consequences, availability of information on the alternative technologies, planning support, and comparative costs.

  • Traditional structural erosion control techniques may appear to be the most cost-effective. However, they do not account for the cumulative impacts that result in environmental costs nor the undervaluation of the environmental benefits of the nonstructural approaches.

  • Nonstructural erosion control techniques provide both shoreline protection and ecosystem services (creation of fish habitat, habitat restoration, recreation benefits of nourished beaches).

  • There is a general lack of knowledge and experience among decision-makers regarding options for shoreline erosion mitigation on sheltered coasts, especially options that retain more of the shoreline’s natural features.

  • The regulatory response to shoreline erosion on sheltered coasts is generally reactive rather than proactive. Most states have not developed plans for responding to and managing erosion on sheltered shorelines.

  • Some states have not mapped the erosion zones on their sheltered shores, hindering informed decision-making by policy-makers and project applicants.

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