References and Bibliography

Airoldi, L., M. Abbiati, M.W. Beck, S.J. Hawkins, P.R. Jonsson, D. Martin, P.S. Moschella, A. Sundelof, R.C. Thompson and P. Aberg. 2005. An ecological perspective on the development and design of low-crested and other hard coastal defense structures. Coastal Engineering 52:1073-1087.

Allen, H.H., R.L. Lazor and J.W. Webb. 1990. Stabilization and development of marsh lands. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material. Pp. 101-112 in Proceedings of the Gulf Coast Regional Workshop, held on April 26-28, 1988 in Galveston, Texas. Technical Report D-90-3. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vickburg, Mississippi.

Amos, C.L., M. Brylinsky, T.F. Sutherland, D. O’Brien, S. Lee and A. Cramp. 1998. The stability of a mudflat in the Humber estuary, South Yorkshire, UK. Pp. 25-44 in Sedimentary processes in the intertidal zone, Black, K.S., D.M. Paterson, and A. Cramp (eds). Geological Society of London Special Publication 139, United Kingdom.

Badola, R. and Hussain, S.A. 2005. Valuing ecosystem functions: an empirical study on the storm protection function of Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem, India. Environmental Conservation 32(1):85-92.

Bailard, J.A. and D.L. Inman. 1981. An energetics bedload transport model for a plane sloping beach: Local transport. Journal of Geophysical Research 86:2035.

Bak, P. 1996. How Nature Works: The Science of Self-organized Criticality. Copernicus, New York, New York.

Basco, D.R. and C.S. Shin. 1993. Design Wave Information for Chesapeake Bay and Major Tributaries in Virginia. Report no 93-1. Old Dominion University, Costal Engineering Institute, Norfolk, Virginia.

Beatley, T., D.J. Brower and A.K. Schwab. 2002. An Introduction to Coastal Zone Management. Island Press: Washington, DC

Beck, M.W., K.L. Heck, Jr., K.W. Able, D.L. Childers, D.B. Eggleston, B.M. Gillanders, B.S. Halpern, C.G. Hays, K. Hoshino, T.J. Minello, R.J. Orth, P.F. Sheridan and M.P. Weinstein. 2003. The Role of Nearshore Ecosystems as Fish and Shellfish Nurseries. Issues in Ecology 11:2-12. [Online] Available at: http://www.esa.org/science/Issues/ [January 31, 2006].



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Mitigating Shore Erosion Along Sheltered Coasts References and Bibliography Airoldi, L., M. Abbiati, M.W. Beck, S.J. Hawkins, P.R. Jonsson, D. Martin, P.S. Moschella, A. Sundelof, R.C. Thompson and P. Aberg. 2005. An ecological perspective on the development and design of low-crested and other hard coastal defense structures. Coastal Engineering 52:1073-1087. Allen, H.H., R.L. Lazor and J.W. Webb. 1990. Stabilization and development of marsh lands. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material. Pp. 101-112 in Proceedings of the Gulf Coast Regional Workshop, held on April 26-28, 1988 in Galveston, Texas. Technical Report D-90-3. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vickburg, Mississippi. Amos, C.L., M. Brylinsky, T.F. Sutherland, D. O’Brien, S. Lee and A. Cramp. 1998. The stability of a mudflat in the Humber estuary, South Yorkshire, UK. Pp. 25-44 in Sedimentary processes in the intertidal zone, Black, K.S., D.M. Paterson, and A. Cramp (eds). Geological Society of London Special Publication 139, United Kingdom. Badola, R. and Hussain, S.A. 2005. Valuing ecosystem functions: an empirical study on the storm protection function of Bhitarkanika mangrove ecosystem, India. Environmental Conservation 32(1):85-92. Bailard, J.A. and D.L. Inman. 1981. An energetics bedload transport model for a plane sloping beach: Local transport. Journal of Geophysical Research 86:2035. Bak, P. 1996. How Nature Works: The Science of Self-organized Criticality. Copernicus, New York, New York. Basco, D.R. and C.S. Shin. 1993. Design Wave Information for Chesapeake Bay and Major Tributaries in Virginia. Report no 93-1. Old Dominion University, Costal Engineering Institute, Norfolk, Virginia. Beatley, T., D.J. Brower and A.K. Schwab. 2002. An Introduction to Coastal Zone Management. Island Press: Washington, DC Beck, M.W., K.L. Heck, Jr., K.W. Able, D.L. Childers, D.B. Eggleston, B.M. Gillanders, B.S. Halpern, C.G. Hays, K. Hoshino, T.J. Minello, R.J. Orth, P.F. Sheridan and M.P. Weinstein. 2003. The Role of Nearshore Ecosystems as Fish and Shellfish Nurseries. Issues in Ecology 11:2-12. [Online] Available at: http://www.esa.org/science/Issues/ [January 31, 2006].

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Mitigating Shore Erosion Along Sheltered Coasts Bedford, B.L. 1996. The need to define hydrologic equivalence at the landscape scale for freshwater wetland mitigation. Ecological Applications 6:57-68. Borges, P., C. Andrade and M.C. Freitas. 2002. Dune, bluff and beach erosion due to exhaustive sand mining: the case of Santa Barbara Beach, São Miguel (Azores, Portugal). Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue 36:89-95. Bowen, A.J. 1969. The generation of longshore currents on a plane beach. Journal of Marine Research 27:206-215. Bowen, A.J. 1980. Simple models of nearshore sedimentation; beach profiles and longshore bars. Pp. 1-11 in The Coastline of Canada, S.B. McCann (ed.). Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Brinson, M.M. and R. Rheinhardt. 1996. The role of reference wetlands in functional assessment and mitigation. Ecological Applications 6:69-76. British Permanent Service. 2005. Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level. [Online]. Available at: http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/ [November 29, 2005]. British Standards Institution. 1991. British Standard for Maritime Structures, Part 7: Guide to the design and construction of breakwaters. British Standards Institution, London, United Kingdom. Bruun, P. 1962. Sea-level rise as a cause of shore erosion. Journal Waterways and Harbours Division 88(1-3):117-130. Burby, R.J. (ed.). 1998. Cooperation with Nature: Confronting Natural Hazards with Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Communities. John Henry Press/National Academy Press: Washington, DC Burby, R.J. and R.G. Paterson. 1993. Improving compliance with state development regulations. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 12:753-772. Burby, R.J., R.E. Doyle, D.R. Godschalk, and R.B. Olshansky. 2000. Creating hazard resistant communities through land-use planning. Natural Hazards Review 1:99-106. Byrne, R.J. and C. Zabawa. 1984. Effects of Boat Wakes on Tidal Shorelines. Technical Report. College of William and Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point. Carminati, E. and G. Martinelli. 2002. Subsidence rates in the Po Plain, northern Italy: The relative impact of natural and anthropogenic causation. Engineering Geology 66:241-255. Clark, W. 2001. Protecting the Estuarine Region through Policy and Management. North Carolina Sea Grant, Raleigh. Costanza, R., R. d’Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R.V. O’Neill, J. Paruelo and R.G. Raskin. 1997. The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253-260. Coulten, K., D. Divoky, D. Hatheway, J. Johnson and R. Nobel. 2005. Sheltered Waters: FEMA Coastal Flood Hazard Analysis and Mapping Guidelines Focused Study Report. Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC. Council on Environmental Quality. 1997. Considering Cumulative Effects under the National Environemtal Policy Act. Executive Office of the President, Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC. Craft, C., J. Reader, J.N. Sacco and S.W. Broome. 1999. Twenty-five years of ecosystem development of constructed Spartina alterniflora (Loisel) marshes. Ecological Applications 9:1405-1419. Dally, W.R and J. Pope. 1986. Detached breakwaters for shore protection. Technical Report CERC-86-1. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, Mississippi. Dan, A., A. Moriguchi, K. Mitsuhashi and T. Terawaki. 1998. Relationship between Zostera marina and bottom sediments, wave action offshore, in Naruto, Southern Japan. Fisheries Engineering 34:229-204. Danielsen, F., M.K. Sorensen, M.F. Olwig, V. Selvam, F. Parish, N.D. Burgess, T. Hiraishi, V.M. Karunagaran, M.S. Rasmussen, L.B. Hansen, A. Quarto and N. Suryadiputra. 2005. The Asian tsunami: a protective role for coastal vegetation. Science 310:643.

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Mitigating Shore Erosion Along Sheltered Coasts Dennison, W.C., R.J. Orth, K.A. Moore, J.C. Stevenson, V. Carter, S. Kollar, P. Bergstrom and R. Batiuk. 1993. Assessing water quality with submersed aquatic vegetation. Habitat requirements as barometers of Chesapeake Bay health. Bioscience 43:86-94. Douglass, S.L. 2005a. How bad is the Problem: Case Study of Mobile Bay. Presentation to the Committee on Mitigating Shore Erosion along Sheltered Coasts, meeting held on October 4-6, 2005 in Seattle, Washington. National Research Council, Washington, DC. Douglass, S.L. 2005b. The Tide Don’t Go Out Anymore. Presentation to the Committee on Mitigating Shore Erosion along Sheltered Coasts, meeting held on October 4-6, 2005 in Seattle, Washington. National Research Council, Washington, DC. Douglass, S.L. and B.H. Pickel. 1999. “The Tide Doesn’t Go Out Anymore”—The Effect of Bulkheads on Urban Bay Shorelines. University of South Alabama, Civil Engineering and Marine Sciences Departments, Mobile. [Online] Available at: http://www.southalabama.edu/cesrp/Tide.htm [January 25, 2006]. Dring, M.J. 1992. The Biology of Marine Plants. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. 199 pp. Duke University. 2005. Description of Alternative Devices for Shoreline Stabilization. [Online] Available at: http://www.nicholas.duke.edu/psds/Stabilization/Categories.htm [November 29, 2005]. Ehrenhauss, S., U. Witte, F. Janssen and M. Huettel. 2004. Decomposition of diatoms and nutrient dynamics in permeable North Sea sediments. Continental Shelf Research 24: 721-737. Environmental Law Institute (ELI). 1994. National wetland mitigation banking study. IWR Report 94-WMB-2. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Institute for Water Resources, Alexandria, Virginia. Environmental Law Institute (ELI). 2006. 2005 Status Report on Compensatory Mitigation in the United States. An ELI Report prepared by Wilkinson and Thompson. Environmental Law Institute, Washington, DC. Eurosion. 2004. Living with coastal erosion in Europe: Sediment and space for sustainability. Part IV—A guide to coastal erosion management practices in Europe: Lessons learned. Eurosion, Directorate General Environment European Commission, Hague, The Netherlands [Online] Available at: http://www.eurosion.org/reports-online/part4.pdf [September 7, 2006]. Field, C.D. 1997. Journey Amongst Mangroves. International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, University of the Ryukus, Okinawa, Japan. Finlayson, D.P. and H. Shipman. 2003. Puget Sound Drift Cells: the importance of waves and wave climate. Puget Sound Notes: Science News from the Puget Sound Action Team 47:1-4. Fonseca, M.S. and J. A. Cahalan. 1992. A preliminary evaluation of wave attenuation for four species of seagrass. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 35:565-576. Fonseca, M.S., W.J. Kenworthy and G.W. Thayer. 1998. Guidelines for the conservation and restoration of seagrasses in the United States and adjacent waters. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coastal Ocean Program Decision Analysis Series. No. 12. NOAA, Coastal Ocean Office, Silver Spring, Maryland. 222 pp. Fonseca, M.S., P.E. Whitfield, N.M. Kelly and S.S. Bell. 2002. Modeling seagrass landscape pattern and associated ecological attributes. Ecological Applications 12:218-237. Fredsøe, J. and R. Deigaard. 1992. Mechanics of Coastal Sediment Transport. World Scientific Publishing Company, River Edge, New Jersey. 369 pp. Gabriel, A.O. and T.A. Terich. 2005. Cumulative patterns and controls of seawall construction, Thurston County, Washington. Journal of Coastal Research 21:430-440. Great Lakes Basin Commission. 1976. Appendix 12: Shore Use and Erosion, in Great Lakes Basin Framework Study, prepared by Shore Use and Erosion Work Group and sponsored by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Central Division. Great Lakes Basin Commission, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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Mitigating Shore Erosion Along Sheltered Coasts Griggs, G.B. and K.B. Patsch. 2004. California’s Coastal Cliffs and Bluffs. Pp. 53-64 in Formation, Evolution, and Stability of Coastal Cliffs—Status and Trends, Hampton, M.A. and G.B. Griggs (eds.). Professional Paper 1693. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, DC. Griggs, G.B. and L.E. Savoy. 1985. Living with the California Coast. Duke University Press, Durham, North Carolina. 393 pp. Griggs, J.F. and G.B. Tait. 1991. Beach Response to the Presence of a Seawall; Comparison of Field Observations. Contract Report CERC 91-1. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Waterways Experiment Station, Vickburg, Mississippi. Griggs, G.B., J.E. Pepper and M.E. Jordan. 1992. California’s coastal hazards; a critical assessment of existing land-use policies and practices. Special Publication of California Policy Seminar Program, Berkeley, California. 224 pp. Griggs, G.B., J.F. Tait and W. Corona. 1994. The Interaction of Seawalls and Beaches; Seven Years of Monitoring, Monterey Bay, Califorinia. Shore and Beach 62(3):21-28. Habel, J.S. and G.A. Armstrong. 1978. Assessment and atlas of shoreline erosion along the California coast. State of California, Department of Navigation and Ocean Development. Sacramento. Hardaway, C.S., Jr. and R.J. Byrne. 1999. Shoreline Management in Chesapeake Bay. Special Report in Applied Marine Science and Ocean Engineering, No. 356. College of William and Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point. 54 pp. Hardaway, C.S., Jr. and R.J. Byrne. 2001. Shoreline Management in Chesapeake Bay. College of William and Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point. Hardaway, C.S., Jr. and J.R. Gunn. 1999. Chesapeake Bay: Design and Early Performance of Three Headland Breakwater Systems. Pp. 828-843 in Coastal Sediments ’99, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Coasting Engineering and Science of Coastal Sediment Processes, held on June 21-23, 1999, in Hauppauge, New York. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia. Hardaway, C.S., Jr., G.R. Thomas, M.A. Unger, J. Greaves and G. Rice. 1991. SEABEE Monitoring Project, James River Estuary, Virginia. Report for the Center for Innovative Technology by Virginia Institute of Marine Science. College of William and Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point. Hardaway, C.S., Jr., J. Posenau, G.A. Thomas and J.C. Baumer. 1992. Shoreline Erosion Assessment Software (SEASware) Report. Technical report to the Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. Richmond, Virginia. College of William and Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point. 48 pp. + Appendices. Hardaway, C. S., Jr., J.R. Gunn and R.N. Reynolds. 1993. Breakwater Design in the Chesapeake Bay: Dealing with the End Effects. Pp. 27-41 in Coastal Engineering Considerations in Coastal Zone Management, Proceedings of the 8th Symposium on Coastal and Ocean Management, held on July 19-23, 1993 in New Orleans, Louisiana. American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, Virginia. Hardaway, C.S., Jr., D.A. Milligan, C.A. Wilcox, L.M. Meneghini, G.R. Thomas and T.R. Comer. 2005. The Chesapeake Bay Breakwater Database Project: Hurricane Isabel Impacts to Four Breakwater Systems. College of William and Mary, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point. Heck, K.L. Jr., K.W. Able, C.T. Roman and M.P. Fahay. 1995. Composition, abundance, biomass, and production of macrofauna in a New England estuary: Comparisons among eelgrass meadows and other nursery habitats. Estuaries 18:379-389. Heinz Center. 2000. Evaluation of Erosion Hazards. Heintz Center, Washington, DC. [Online] Available at: http://www.heinzctr.org/publications.htm [April 7, 2006]. Hesp, P. 2002. Foredunes and blowouts: initiation, geomorphology and dynamics. Geomorphology 48:245-268. Hjulstrom, F. 1939. Transportation of detritus in moving water. Pp. 5-31 in Recent marine sediments, P.D. Trask (ed.). American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Oklahoma.

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