L. spp.

Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia

Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis

L. donovani

Indian subcontinent, East Africa

 

L. spp.

Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia

Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis:

 

 

Single or few skin lesions

L. major

Middle East, northwestern China, northwestern India, Pakistan, Africa

L. tropica

Mediterranean littoral, Middle East, western Asia, Indian subcontinent

L. aethiopica

Ethiopian highlands, Kenya, Yemen

L. infantum

Mediterranean basin

L. donovani (archibaldi)

Sudan, east Africa

L. spp.

Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia

Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis

L. aethiopica

Ethiopian highlands, Kenya, Yemen

New World cutaneous leishmaniasis:

 

 

Single or few skin lesions

L. mexicana (chiclero ulcer)

Central America, Mexico, Texas

L. amazonensis

Amazon basin and neighboring areas, Bahia, other states in Brazil

L. (V.) braziliensis

Multiple areas of Central America and South America

L. (V.) guyanensis (forest yaws)

Guyana, Suriname, northern Amazon basin

L. (V.) peruviana (uta)

Peru (western Andes), Argentine highlands

L. (V.) panamensis

Panama, Costa Rica, Colombia

L. (V.) pifanoi

Venezuela

L. (V.) garnhami

Venezuela

L. (V.) venexuelensis

Venezuela

L. (V.) colombiensis

Colombia, Panama

L. chagasi

Central America, South America

Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis

L. amazonensis

Amazon basin and neighboring areas, Bahia and other states in Brazil

L. (V.) pifanoi

Venezuela

L. mexicana

Mexico, Central America

L. spp.

Dominican Republic

Mucosal leishmaniasis

L .(V.) braziliensis (espundia)

Multiple areas in Latin America

NOTE: V. denotes subgenus Vianna. All others subgenus Leishmania.

SOURCE: Adapted with permission from Guerrant et al. 1999.

Parasites in the L. donovani complex cause VL cases globally. Historically, L. tropica was rarely reported to cause VL; a few cases were reported in east Africa (Kenya) and southwest Asia. However, a handful of US soldiers deployed to the Gulf War developed a mild visceral form of leishmaniasis caused by L. tropica (termed viscerotropic disease). Those cases are described in Chapter 4.

Transmission of Leishmaniasis

The Leishmania organisms have two forms: the promastigote (which is flagellated) and the amastigote. The sand fly is the vector and carries the promastigote form. Sand flies inject the



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement