TABLE 3.1 Bacterial Diseases That Are Endemic to Southwest and South-Central Asia and Have Potential Long-Term Adverse Health Outcomes

 

 

Potential Long-Term Outcomes in Adults with Clinical Disease

Disease or Syndrome

Acute Syndrome(s) in Adults

Disease(s), Syndrome(s), or Clinical Features

Frequency of Occurrence of Outcomesa

Delay Between Acute Infection and Onset of Outcomesb

More Prevalent in Southwest and South- Central Asia Than in the United States

Anthrax

(Bacillus anthracis)

Abdominal anthrax: initially fever, acute gastroenteritis, vomiting, bloody diarrhea; hemorrhagic lesions of intestinal lumen followed by massive infected ascites, septicemia, death

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Frequent

No

 

Inhalational anthrax: fever, chills, malaise, cough, nausea or vomiting, dyspnea, sweats, chest discomfort or pleuritic pain, muscle aches, headache followed by respiratory distress due to hemorrhagic mediastinitis and mediastinal lymphadenitis with pleural effusions; often terminates in respiratory damage, shock, death

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Frequent

No

 

Oropharyngeal anthrax: fever, lesion in oral cavity, pharyngeal pain, cervical edema, local lymphadenitis

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Frequent

No

 

Cutaneous anthrax: eschar with surrounding edema, regional lymphadenopathy, fever, malaise, headache; bacteremia in 5% of untreated persons

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Rare

No

Brucellosisc

(Brucella spp)

(see Chapter 5 for detailed discussion)

Fever, headache, myalgia, hepatosplenomegaly, arthritis, meningoencephalitis

Arthritis

Common (if untreated)

Yes (weeks to years)

 

Fatigue

Common

Yes (weeks to years)

 

Hepatic abnormalities

Rare

Yes (weeks to years)

 

Mental inattention

Rare

Yes (weeks to years)

 

Neurologic disease

Rare

Yes (weeks to years)



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