Potential Long-Term Outcomes in Adults with Clinical Disease

Disease or Syndrome

Acute Syndrome(s) in Adults

Disease(s), Syndrome(s), or Clinical Features

Frequency of Occurrence of Outcomesa

Delay Between Acute Infection and Onset of Outcomesb

others)

lymphadenopathy, jaundice, hepatosplenomegaly, conjunctival suffusion, aseptic meningitis, uveitis, pneumonitis, bleeding, diathesis, sepsis

 

 

 

Rat-bite fever

(Spirillum minus)

Painful, swollen, ulcerated bite site; swollen lymph nodes, fever, headache, rash, relapses if untreated

Relapses (if acute syndrome untreated)

Rare

No

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Rare

No

Endocarditis

Very rare

No

Relapsing fever

(Borrelia recurrentis louse-borne; other species, tick-borne)

Range of severity; fever, headache, myalgia, jaundice, enlarged liver and spleen, rash, central nervous system infection, iritis, iridocyclitis, hemorrhage, mycocarditis, relapses

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Rare

No

Yaws (nonvenereal treponemal infection, Treponema pertenue)

Rash, osteitis

Rash (if untreated)

Very rare

No

Of special concern to US troops or veterans

Mycoplasmal infection

(primary atypical pneumonia)

Fever, malaise, cough, headache, rash, cryoglobulinemia, myocarditis, arthritis, meningitis, myelitis, encephalitis, hemolytic anemia, glomerulonephritis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, arthritis

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Very rare

No

Bacterial diseases against which all military personnel were immunized and vaccines are highly or fully protective

Diphtheria

(Corynebacterium diphtheriae)

Pharyngeal or wound infection with necrotic membrane formation, respiratory damage, myocarditis

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Frequent

No

Haemophilus influenzae type B infection

Meningitis, epiglottitis, arthritis, osteomyelitis

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Rare

No



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement