Potential Long-Term Outcomes in Adults with Clinical Disease

Disease or Syndrome

Acute Syndrome(s) in Adults

Disease(s), Syndrome(s), or Clinical Features

Frequency of Occurrence of Outcomesa

Delay Between Acute Infection and Onset of Outcomesb

Tetanus

(Clostridium tetani)

Wound infection leading to muscle spasm, respiratory damage, autonomic instability

Sepsis or infection- related organ damage, lockjaw

Frequent

No

Bacterial diseases against which all military personnel were immunized and vaccines are partly protective

Meningococcal disease

(Neisseria meningitidis)

Meningitis, sepsis

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Frequent

No

Pertussis (whooping cough, Bordetella pertussis)

Respiratory tract infection, secondary infections, encephalopathy

Trauma from severe cough

Rare

No

Bacterial diseases not more prevalent in Southwest and South-Central Asia than in the United States

Actinomycosis

(Actinomyces)

Abscesses, soft-tissue infection

Orofacial, pulmonary, genitourinary disease; osteomyelitis

Common

Yes (months)

Bartonellosis

(Bartonella)

Cat-scratch disease, systemic infection, encephalopathy, retinopathy

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Rare

No

Capnocytophaga infection

Bite-site infection (dogs), bacteremia, sepsis

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Rare

No

Chlamydia pneumoniae infection

Respiratory tract infections

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage, focal infection

Rare

No

Botulism

(Clostridium botulinum)

Neurotoxicity, cranial nerve palsies, respiratory damage

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Rare

No

Gas gangrene

(Clostridium perfringens)

Gas gangrene, wound infection

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Rare

No

Tularemia

(Francisella tularensis)

Pneumonia, typhoidal illness, sepsis

Sepsis or infection-related organ damage

Rare

No



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