Potential Long-Term Outcomes in Adults with Clinical Disease

Disease or Syndrome

Acute Syndrome(s) in Adults

Disease(s), Syndrome(s), or Clinical Feature

Frequency of Occurrence of Outcomesa

Delay Between Acute Infection and Onset of Outcomesb


(Toxoplasma gondii)

Range of symptoms: may be asymptomatic, fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, myositis, mononucleosis-like syndrome (pharyngitis, fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy), encephalitis, myocarditis, chorioretinitis, rarely pneumonitis; congenital infection can occur if acute infection occurs during pregnancy

Reactivation of disease (if immunocompromised)

Common (if immuno-compromised)

Yes (years)


Toxoplasmic brain abscesses (only in severely immunocompromised)


Yes (years)



Very rare (if infected as adult);

Common (if infected in utero)

Yes (years)

a Probability calculated as percentage of acute cases. Frequent, >50% of cases; common, >5- 50% of cases; rare, 1-5% of cases; very rare, <1% of cases.

b Delay defined as adverse health outcome not evident at time of acute illness.

c Postinfection enteropathy: syndrome of chronic or intermittent diarrhea and/or constipation that follows elimination of previous infectious enteropathy; poorly defined etiology and pathogenic mechanism; often self-limited over months to years.

d Reported in military personnel in the Gulf War, Operation Enduring Freedom, or Operation Iraqi Freedom as of December, 2005.

SOURCE: GIDEON 2006; Heymann 2004; Mandell et al. 2005; Nester et al. 2004; Wilson 1991.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement