TABLE 3.4 Helminthic Diseases That Are Endemic to Southwest and South-Central Asia and Have Potential Long-Term Adverse Health Outcomes

 

 

Potential Long-Term Outcomes in Adults with Clinical Disease

Disease or Syndrome

Acute Syndrome(s) in Adults

Disease(s), Syndrome(s), or Clinical Feature

Frequency of Occurrence of Outcomesa

Delay Between Acute Infection and Onset of Outcomesb

Nematodes

 

 

 

 

Ascariasis

(Ascaris spp.)

Largely asymptomatic

Transient respiratory symptoms associated with pulmonary infiltration and peripheral blood eosinophilia, intestinal obstruction or blockage

Biliary duct obstruction, ascending cholangitis, acute pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice, peritonitis

Very rare

Yes (months to years)

Enterobiasis (pinworm infection, Enterobius vermicularis)

Largely asymptomatic

Appendicitis

Very rare

Yes (months to years)

Pelvic infection

Very rare

Yes (months to years)

Symptomatic: perianal or perineal pruritus

 

 

 

Occasionally: abdominal pain

 

 

 

Filariasis

(Wuchereria bancrofti)

Lymphangitis, lymphadenitis, eosinophilia

Episodes of fever and lymphangitis, may recur over several years

Rare

Yes (years)

Lymphedema

Rare

Yes (years)

Persistent adenopathy

Rare

Yes (years)

Epididymitis

Very rare

Yes (years)

Chyluria

Very rare

Yes (years)

Orchitis

Very rare

Yes (years)

Hookworm disease

(Ancylostoma duodenale and Necata americanus)

Largely asymptomatic

Pruritus at dermal site of larval penetration

Iron-deficiency anemia

Common

Yes (months to years)

Onchocerciasis (river blindness, Onchocerca volvulus)

Dermatitis, keratitis

Skin hyperpigmentation, depigmentation, chronic dermatitis, dermal atrophy

Common

Yes (years to decades)

Sclerosing keratitis

Common (if untreated)

Yes (years to decades)



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